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chapter 3&4 and 5&6


birth to 1 year

attention decrement

the later items in a list receives less attention as the observers tire and their minds start to wander, thus the items have less impact on their judgement


our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning


decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner


An infant's renewed interest in a new or old stimulus following habituation to an old stimulus


the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences

language production

what people say, sign, and write, as well as the processes they go through to produce these messages

language reception

reading, thinking, listening


one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words


The study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language (including such things as rules concerning verb tense, pluralization, and compound words).

Brocas area

frontal lobe, responsible for speech

Wernicks area

In left temporal lobe, assists with language comprehension.


Language Acquisition Device;

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

separation protest

Reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being separated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves.


A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

social referencing

reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation

reciprocal socialization

Socialization that is bidirectional; children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children.

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

hypothalamus gland



sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep

piaget's theory

States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development

Erickson's theory

trust vs. mistrust (infants learn whether to trust others or not. trust by having a consistent environment, have their needs met promptly.

vygotsky's cognitive theory

focuses on how culture is transmitted; higher mental functions grow out of social interactions and dialogues - cooperative dialogues; cognitive development as a socially mediated process


cognitive operations that exceed the normal activities required to carry out a task

theory of mind

children's first cognitive understanding, which appears at about age 4, that other people have different beliefs and perspectives from their own

short term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten

long term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.


Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level

zone of proximal development

the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or children with more skill

self-conscious emotions

Emotions involving injury to or enhancement of the sense of self, such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.

emotional language

Using words to appeal to your senses.

understand of emotion

feeling,or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to them, especially to their well-being.

emotional coaching

parents monitor their childs emotions, view them as opportunities for teaching, and coach them in how to deal with emotions effectively

moral development

development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

sibling relationships

play a distinct role in socialization; what children learn from relations with siblings carries over to relationships outside the home

working parents

More than 60% of families in the US with children from ages 5-14 have mothers who are working.

social class

people having the same social or economic status


an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

peer relationship

children need to create a plance for themselves within the social group. they must learn to compete for social status, come to terms with the possibility that others may not like them, and deal with any conflicts that arise.

infancy play

exploration and sensorimotor based

anger cry

a variation of the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords

basic cry

a rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a briefer silence, a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry, and then a brief rest before the next cry

pain cry

a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning, followed by breath holding

reflexive smile

A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep.

social smile

the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. First appears between 6 and 10 weeks.

infant fear

After 6 months, cognitive development allows them to remember pain and peaks at 18 months

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

seperation protest

reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being seperated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves

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