50 terms


chapter 3&4 and 5&6
birth to 1 year
attention decrement
the later items in a list receives less attention as the observers tire and their minds start to wander, thus the items have less impact on their judgement
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
An infant's renewed interest in a new or old stimulus following habituation to an old stimulus
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
language production
what people say, sign, and write, as well as the processes they go through to produce these messages
language reception
reading, thinking, listening
one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
The study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language (including such things as rules concerning verb tense, pluralization, and compound words).
Brocas area
frontal lobe, responsible for speech
Wernicks area
In left temporal lobe, assists with language comprehension.
Language Acquisition Device;
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
separation protest
Reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being separated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves.
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
social referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
reciprocal socialization
Socialization that is bidirectional; children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children.
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
hypothalamus gland
sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
piaget's theory
States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
Erickson's theory
trust vs. mistrust (infants learn whether to trust others or not. trust by having a consistent environment, have their needs met promptly.
vygotsky's cognitive theory
focuses on how culture is transmitted; higher mental functions grow out of social interactions and dialogues - cooperative dialogues; cognitive development as a socially mediated process
cognitive operations that exceed the normal activities required to carry out a task
theory of mind
children's first cognitive understanding, which appears at about age 4, that other people have different beliefs and perspectives from their own
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
zone of proximal development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or children with more skill
self-conscious emotions
Emotions involving injury to or enhancement of the sense of self, such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.
emotional language
Using words to appeal to your senses.
understand of emotion
feeling,or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to them, especially to their well-being.
emotional coaching
parents monitor their childs emotions, view them as opportunities for teaching, and coach them in how to deal with emotions effectively
moral development
development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
sibling relationships
play a distinct role in socialization; what children learn from relations with siblings carries over to relationships outside the home
working parents
More than 60% of families in the US with children from ages 5-14 have mothers who are working.
social class
people having the same social or economic status
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
peer relationship
children need to create a plance for themselves within the social group. they must learn to compete for social status, come to terms with the possibility that others may not like them, and deal with any conflicts that arise.
infancy play
exploration and sensorimotor based
anger cry
a variation of the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords
basic cry
a rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a briefer silence, a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry, and then a brief rest before the next cry
pain cry
a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning, followed by breath holding
reflexive smile
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep.
social smile
the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. First appears between 6 and 10 weeks.
infant fear
After 6 months, cognitive development allows them to remember pain and peaks at 18 months
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
seperation protest
reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being seperated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves