concepts of aerobics final

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dynamic and static warm upDynamic warmup gets your muscles and joints loose for your workout; Static stretching elongates the muscle, pushing it past the point it wants to goproper dress for physical activitymoveable, light, layer if neededRisk Factorsphysical activity; diet; stress; tobacco use; body (fatness); blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure; reducing your risk of diseaseCardiovascular Diseasecoronary heart disease, coronary occlusion (heart attack), atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis; stroke (brain attack); also hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failureCoronary Heart Disease Risk Factorscoronary occlusion (heart attack), atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosisAtherosclerosiscondition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteriesback Problems80% of the population will experience back pain at some point in their life; back problems are a cause of inactivity in adults; absenteeism caused by back pain has important economic implicationPhysical Activity and Diabetesfor type 1 it reduced disease risk, increased quality of life; for type 2 decreased insulin requirement, reduced fatnessPhysical Activity and Osteoporosisincreases peak bone mass; slows the decline in bone massPhysical Activity and Emotional Healthreduces depression; reduces anxiety; improves sleep (with a greater ability to relax); increases self-esteemPhysical Activity and Agingdependent aging cannot be altered; physical activity can, however, slow "acquired aging" - the loss of function associated with lack of fitness and inactive lifestyles; compression of morbidity, or compression of illness, is another positive effectOverload Principledoing "more than normal" is necessary to force the body to adapt to the challengePrinciple of Progressionoverload should occur in a gradual progression rather than in major burstsPrinciple of Specificityoverload is specific to each body partPrinciple of Reversibilityif you don't use it, you lose itDose-Response Relationshipthe greater the dose of activity, the greater the responsePrinciple of Diminishing Returnsthe rate and degree of improvement decrease as a person gets more fitPrinciple of Rest & Recoveryrest is needed to allow the body to adapt to exercisePrinciple of Individualitybenefits of physical activity vary for each personFITT Formulafrequency(how often), intensity(how hard), time(how long), type(kind of activity)Walkable EnvironmentsWarm weather; Sidewalks; Good lighting; Safe neighborhoods; Aesthetic surroundingsTips to Add Activity into Daily Lifestyletake a walk, take the stairs, wake up and work outPedometersAn instrument that measures distance walkedCardioheartVascularvesselsArteriesaway from the heartVeinsto the heartMaximum HR MethodmaxHR = 208 - (.7 x age)Carotidat the neckRadialat the wristMuscular StrengthThe amount of force a muscle can exertMuscular Endurancethe ability of your muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without tiring3 Main Characteristics of Popular Sportssports provide a challenge; lifetime sports can be done at any age; certain adaptions allow people without exceptional skill to participateHealth Benefits of Resistance Traininglower risk of all-cause mortality; fewer heart attacks, a better heart disease risk profile; lower incidence of high blood pressure (hypertension); reduced risk of some cancers; healthier blood lipid profile; better insulin sensitivity and improve blood glucose; reduced risk of metabolic syndrome; better body composition (less body fat and more lean muscle); greater bone mass and less risk of osteoporosis; lower risk of osteoarthritis and musculoskeletalConcentricmuscle shortensEccentriclengthening contractionIsometricsame lengthGuidelines for Safe & Effective Resistance Trainingstart slowly; use good technique; allow time for recovery; include all muscle groups; customize your program to fit your needsstatic stretchinga technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretched positiondynamic stretchingA type of stretching that uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion.PNF stretchingA variation of static stretching that involves contracting a muscle before stretching it.ballistic stretchinga technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced, swung, or jerkedFIT for stretching2 to 3 times a week for about 15 minTotal number of vertebrae33Causes of back & neck painexcessive stress and strain, poor posture, bad body mechanics and improper lifting techniquesBenefits of good postureimportant part of nonverbal communication, helps maintain even distribution of force across the body, helps improve shock absorption, helps minimize the degree of active muscle tension required to maintain postureCauses of poor posturebody alignment problems, heredity, congenital and disease conditions, environmental conditions, poor fitness, lack of knowledge, bad habitsElements of good standing posturehead centered with chin level, chest high, but not strained, shoulders down and back, abdomen flat, knees straight and relaxed feet parallel and weight balancedElements of good sitting postureupright with forward gaze, chest lifted, shoulders down and back, slight arch in lower back, knees slightly lower than hips, feet supported on a firm surfaceErgonomicsThe study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.BMI pros and consPro: easy to collect; Con: doesn't indicate location of excess body weight; BMI= weight/heighthealth risks of obesityHypertension, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, abdominal hernias, some cancers, varicose veins, gallbladder disease, kidney stones, respiratory problems, liver malfunction, complications in pregnancy & surgery, flat feet, & high accident rate.