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34 terms

Chapter 3 - Cell structures and function

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cell theory
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are basic unit of life and have specific function in an organism.
central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains high concentration of solutes.
chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis. Found primarily in leaf structures.
eukaryote
An organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, multiple chromosomes, and a mitotic cycle.
lipid bilayer
The basic structure of a cell membrane consisting of a double layer of phospholipid molecules.
lysosome
Vesicles in the cell that contain digestive enzymes used to break down waste materials and cellular debris.
nuclear envelope
The double layer of phospholipids that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
nucleolus
The part of of the eukaryotic nucleus that synthesizes ribosomal RNA.
organelle
A structure that is enclosed within its own membrane inside a cell and has a particular function. Organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells and are absent from the cells of prokaryotes such as bacteria.
phospholipid
Classified as a lipid, these molecules have a polar head and nonpolar tail. Polar head contains glycerol and nonpolar tail consists of fatty acids. Primarily found in membranes.
prokaryote
A single-celled organism that has no nucleus and has no memrbrane-bound organelles.
thylakoid
A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
cell membrane
membrane that separates the inside of all cells from the outside environment.
chromosome
In the nucleus of a eukaryote cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into these condensed structures. Each structure is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
microfilaments
Component of the cytoskeleton. This thin filament like structure helps maintain the shape of the cell.
microtubules
Component of the cytoskeleton, resembles a hollow tube and involved in cell shape, movement and transport of vesicles.
mitochondria
Membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The main function is the production of energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
nucleus
A specialized location within the cell, responsible for protection and housing of DNA and manufacturing of ribosomes.
organ
Collection of specialized tissue joined in a structural unit to serve a common function (kidney, heart, stomach, lungs, etc.)
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task. (respiratory, digestive, excretory, etc.)
plastid
Common name for group of organelles that are responsible for chemical reactions such as photosynthesis (chloroplast, chromoplast)
tissue
collection of similarly specialized cells which together perform certain special functions. (skin, muscle, fat)
cytoplasm
The jelly-like substance that surrounds everything enclosed inside the cell membrane.
cytoskeleton
The network of protein filaments and tubes in the cytoskeleton. Plays an essential role in the cell movement, shape, and division.
flagella
A protein appendage responsible for cell movement.
golgi apparatus
A network of stacked membranous vesicles present in most living cells that functions in the formation of secretions within the cell.
cytosol
the jelly-like interior of the cell, surrounds the internal structures
ribosome
Constructed in the nucleolus, this structure responsible for protein synthesis. Can be found on the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum or loose in the cytoplasm.
cilia
A short and numerous projection found on the surface of cell. Made of protein and responsible for moving debris away from cell (lung cells)
endoplasmic reticulum
a interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae within cells. Responsible for synthesis of protein and lipids.
vesicle
A small membrane enclosed sack that can store or transport substances.
cell wall
Tough, flexible or rigid structure that surrounds some types of cells. Located outside of the cell membrane, provides support and protection to the cell. In plants, made of cellulose.
chloroplast
A plastid found in plant cell and other eukaryotic organism. Contains chlorophyll or other pigments responsible for capturing light energy and converting into sugars during photosynthesis.
chromoplast
A plastid found in specific eukaryotic species. Responsible for pigment synthesis and storage (orange carotene, yellow xanthophyll)