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Ch 4 - final review
Terms in this set (29)
Cells respond to environmental changes and injury in what ways?
withstand, adapt, cell death
Which cellular responses are reversible and which ones are irreversible?
Reversible: withstand and adapt
Irreversible: cell death
What is the definition of hydropic swelling/ oncosis?
Cellular swelling because of accumulation of water
Reversible cell injury causes ____ ____
Excess accumulations of substances in the cell leads to ____ ____
Intracellular accumulation is characterized by excessive amounts of normal intracellular substances such as: (4)
lipids, carbs, proteins, and inorganic pigments
Intracellular accumulation can also be characterized by excessive amounts of abnormal intracellular substances from faulty metabolism or synthesis such as:
Cellular adaptation is caused by persistent ___ ___ due to an increased functional demand or reversible injury
What is the definition of atrophy?
decreased cell size
What is the definition of hypertrophy?
increased cell size
What is the definition of hyperplasia?
increased cell number
What is the definition of metaplasia?
conversion of one cell type to another
What is the definition of dysplasia?
What is the definition of ischemia?
restriction of blood supply to a specific tissue/organ
What is the definition of necrosis?
cell rupture due to ischemia or toxic injury, spilling of contents into extracellular fluid, and inflammation
What is the definition of apoptosis?
Usually occurs from injury that does not directly kill the cell but triggers "suicide" , no rupture, and no inflammation
What is the most common type of necrosis?
coagulative (usually begins with ischemia)
What is the definition of gangrene?
cellular death in a large area of tissue, results from interruption of blood supply
What is the definition of dry gangrene?
form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue
What is the definition of wet gangrene?
form of liquefactive necrosis, typically found in internal organs, can be fatal
What is the definition of gas gangrene?
results from infection of necrotic tissue by anaerobic bacteria, characterized by formation of gas bubbles in damaged muscle tissue, can be fatal
Apoptosis is also known as
regulated/programmed cell death
Apoptosis can be triggered by
external and internal pathways
Causes of cellular injury include (5)
ischemia and hypoxic injury (ischemia-perfusion injury- calcium overload which can lead to apoptosis), nutritional injury, infectious and immunologic injury (bacteria and viruses), chemical injury, physical and mechanical injury
What is the definition of somatic death?
death of entire organism
Aging and disease process are ___
What is the cellular basis of aging?
cumulative result from two factors (decrease in proliferation and reparative capacity and exposure to environmental factors) which cause cellular and molecular damage
What is the definition of programmed senescence theory?
aging is the result of intrinsic genetic program
What is the definition of free radical theory?
aging results from cumulative and progressive damage to cell structures
Sets with similar terms
Pathophysio Chapter 4
Patho Ch 4 (Week 1)
patho week 1 Ch 4 & 5
Cellular Responses to Injury 1
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