every factor of 2 difference in [H+] = how many pH units?


when diluting a stock solution the amount of stock solution you should use =

[what you want]/[what you need]*final volume

methods of finding pH

pH meter, pH paper, titrate solution

CO2 + H2O yields

H2CO3, weak acid

Keq =



a solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base that resist changes in pH in both directions. buffer works best in the middle of its range where the amount of undissasociated acid is about equal to the amount of conjugate base.

ionization of water

very small: 10^-7 (pH=7)

water is the best solvent why?

-polarity, hydrogen bonding, small size, bent shape

why does surface tension occur?

meniscus forms with cohesion: water molecules at the surface hydrogen bond with those below them they create a net downward pull. adhesion:water molecules adhere to the glass and resist the downward pull.

why is water denser as a liquid than a solid?

ice- hydrogen bonds form a crystal structure with lots of spaces

how did life first begin, without a foundation?

-hot and molten earth, volcanoes released CO2, N2, and H2O vapor, H2O cools and forms oceans, reactions can occur in solution

theory of chemical evolution

simple chemical compounds in the ancient atmosphere and ocean combined to form more complex substances found in living cells using energy from heat + sunlight

1st law of thermodynamics

energy is conserved


reactants loose potential energy

delta G =

delta H -T*delta S

energy started chemical evolution by the formation of

free radicals

free radicals are

highly reactive atoms with an unpaired electron broken off by photons

number of collisions depends on

temperature + concentration of reactants

the formation of H2CO (formaldehyde) +HCN was a critical step in chemical evolution because

energy from sunlight was converted to chemical energy (PE in chemical bonds)

functional groups

amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfyhydryl, phosphate

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