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Terms in this set (30)
Changing Chinese character to English letter, also includes borrowing (link --> linkear)
Not borrowing but imitating the phrase/word of another language
Grammatical changes: word order/form, sentence structure, literal translation is not natural, replace lexical gap (does not exist in another language)
Changing point of view, he's honest changes to he doesn't lie, recorded modulation is a lang. dictionary, free modulation is practical
Expressions, cultural things, metaphors, don't exist in another culture so you can omit or paraphrase something w/o cultural significance
Additions, Notes, and Glosses
Add info because it isn't clear in another language but don't translate, like "patolli" is a typical aztec game
Personal A Indicates
The object, and another word is the object
ex) Juan (subject) le escribe una carta a María (object)
If two names and no A, could be Al or A La
How long ago something happened
how long has been doing something
Requires present perfect:
Hace dos años que vive aquí.
I HAVE BEEN living here for 2 years.
Salen juntos desde agosto.
They HAVE BEEN going out since August.
When present tense refers to very shortly upcoming future:
Muy bien, lo compro.
Ok, I"ll BUY it.
Present tense is a command:
Si tienes problemas, me avisas.
If you have problems, TELL me.
Por Poco+Present Tense
Events that nearly happened in the past:
Por poco me caigo.
I ALMOST fell down.
She nearly lost her balance.
Por poco pierde el equilibrio.
Use present tense for assurance or instructions
Abro la ventana?
Should I open the window?
Te llamo esta noche?
Should I call you tonight?
Adjective in Front of Noun
Adjective After Noun
Restrictive, modifying, different from others
Unusual Fem. Nouns
El agua, las aguas Las aguas puras
Un águila, las águilas El águila blanca
El habla catalana La bonita habla catalana
El ala del águila El ala rota del águila americana
Translator adds own style, bad
ST or TT has more descriptive meaning that other language leaves out, bad
lowercase months in English, bad
Diacritical Marks (D)
forgetting accent in Spanish, bad
error when being creative, bad, changing emphasis/flow
grammatical error, violates grammatical rules of language, bad
when following translation word for word is awkward, bad
Misunderstanding/ Mistranslation (MU/MT)
meaning mis-conveyed (maybe with false cognate) vs. misreading word and translating wrong (meaning not conveyed)
changing author's intention by not translating every word, bad
Spanish comma inside of quotation mark, bad
translated word is misspelled, bad
words in wrong order, grammatically incorrect, bad
using universidad instead of college, adding pronouns, hermanos vs siblings vs brothres
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