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90 terms

Unit 5 & 6 Muscular System

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bi-
means two
-cele
means hernia
-desis
means to bind or tie together
fasci/o
means fascia
-ia
means condition
-ic
means pertaining to
kinesi/o
means movement
-lysis
means destruction or breaking down in disease
my/o
means muscle
-plegia
means paralysis
-rrhexis
means rupture
tax/o
means coordination
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
means tendon
ton/o
means tone
tri/o
means three
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
achilles tendinitis
painful inflammation of the achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
adhesion
a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally and may form in muscles and internal organs as the result of an injury or surgery
anticholinergic drug
also known as antispasmodic, administered to control spasmodic activity of smooth muscles such as those of the intestine.
ataxia
an inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement
atonic
means the lack of normal muscle tone
atrophy
weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue
atropine
an antispasmodic that may be adminsitered preoperatively to relax smooth muscles
becker's muscular dystrophy
a less severe illness and does not appear until early adolescense or adulthood, the progression is slower with survivial well into mid to late adulthood; only affects males.
bradykinesia
means extreme slowness in movement
cardioplegia
paralysis of the muscles of the heart
carpal tunnel syndrome
occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflammed and swollen
cervical radiculopathy
nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region; pressure may be caused by muscle spasms due to repetitive motions or by compression of certain vertebral disks
circumduction
the circular movement of a limb at the far end
claudication
to limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
contracture
an abnormal shortening of muscle tissues making the muscle resistant to stretching
dorsiflexion
bends the foot upward at the ankle
duchenne's muscular dystrophy
appears between 2 to 6 years of age, and progresses slowly, however, survival is rare beyond the late twenties; only affects males
dyskinesia
means distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm
dystaxia
also known as partial ataxia, is difficulty in controlling voluntary movement
dystonia
a condition of abnormal muscle tone
electromyography
also known as an EMG, records the strength of muscle contractions as the result of electrical stimulation
electroneuromyography
also known as nerve conduction studies, is a procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of nerve trunk carrying fibers to and from the muscle
epicondylitis
inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
ergonomics
the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
fasciitis
inflammation of the fascia
fascioplasty
the surgical repair of the fascia
fasciotomy
a surgical incision of the fascia
fibromyalgia syndrome
a chronic disorder of unknown cause characterized by widespread aching pain, tender joints, and fatigue
hemiparesis
slight paralysis of one side of the body
hemiplegia
the total paralysis of one side of the body
hyperkinesia
also known as hyperactivity, means abnormally increased motor function or activity
hypertonia
a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles with increased resistance to passive stretching
hypokinesia
abnormally decreased motor function or activity
hypotonia
a condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles with decreased resistance to passive stretching
impingement syndrome
occurs when the tendons become inflammed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
kinesiology
the study of the muscular activity and the resulting movement of body parts
muscular dystrophy
a group on inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
myalgia
means muscle tenderness or pain
myasthenia
muscle weakness from any cause
myasthenia gravis
also known as MG, is a chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness
myectomy
the surgical removal of a portion of muscle
myocele
the protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia
myoclonus
a spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of muscles
myofascial
pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
myolysis
the degeneration of muscle tissue
myomalacia
abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myoparesis
weakness or slight muscular paralysis of a muscle
myoplasty
the surgical repair of muscle
myorrhaphy
means to suture a muscle wound
myorrhexis
the rupture of a muscle
myositis
inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles
myotonia
the delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction
oblique
means slanted or at an angle
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
polymyositis
a chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy
pronation
the act of rotating the arm ot leg so the palm of the hand or sale of the foot is turned downward or backward
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremities
rectus
means straight
singultus
also known as hiccups, is myoclonus of the diapgragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm
spasmodic torticollis
also known as wryneck, is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
sphincter
a ring like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
supination
the act of rotating the arm or leg so the palm of the hand or sale of the foot is turned forward or upward.
tardive dyskinesia
the late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs
tenalgia
pain in a tendon
tendinitis
inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
tendonitis
also known as tendinitis
tenectomy
surgical removal of a lesion from a tendon or tendon sheath
tenodesis
means to suture the end of a tendon to bone
tenolysis
means to free a tendon from adhesions
tenonectomy
surgical removal of part of a tendon for the purpose of shortening it
tenoplasty
also known as tendoplasty, is the surgical repair of a tendon
tenorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a divided tendon
tenotomy
also known as tendotomy, is the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by abnormal shortening of a muscle such as strabismus (crossed eyes)