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61 terms

Integumentary system review

Integumentary system review
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This organ accounts for approximately 16% of your total body weight
Integumentary system/skin
The 2 major components of the integumentary system
The cutaneous membrane and the accessory structures
The 2 components that comprise the cutaneous membrane
Epidermis and Dermis
The loose connective tissue found deep to the dermis, also known as the superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer
Hypodermis
These structures are located primarily in the dermis and protrude through the epidermis to the skin surface
Accessory structures (hair, nails, and multicellular exocrine glands)
Three of the four threats the integument protects the underlying tissues and organs from
impact, abrasion, fluid loss, chemical attack
Production of this protects underlying tissue from UV radiation
Melanin
Production of this protects against abrasion and serves as a water repellant
Keratin
Three items excreted by integumentary glands
salts, water, and organic wastes
Storage of this occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer
lipids in adipocytes
The innermost epidermal layer, also known as stratum germinativum is
stratum basale
This separates the epidermis from the areolar tissue of the adjacent tissue
basement membrane
Each time a stem cell divides, one of the daughter cells is pushed superficially from the stratum basal into the
stratum spinosum
The stratum basale forms these, which extend into the dermis. Fingerprints reveal their pattern.
epidermal ridges
In thick skin, this is the order of the epidermal layers from deep to superficial
Stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
This is a brown, yellow-brown, or black pigment produces by specialized cells located in the stratum basale
Melanin
This is an orange-yellow pigment that normally accumulates in epidermal cells. It is found in a variety of orange vegetables.
Carotene
These are located in the stratum basal, squeezed between or deep to the epithelial cells. They manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosine.
Melanocytes
These are intracellular vesicles in which melanin is packaged.
Melanosomes
In darker skin, the melanosomes are larger and can travel more superficially into this layer of the epidermis
stratum granulosum
The dermis lies between these two layers.
epidermis/hypodermis
These are the two major layers of the dermis.
Papillary layer/ Reticular layer
The reticular layer consists of an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue containing theses two types of fibers.
Collagen and elastic
This is an inflammation of the skin that primarily involves the papillary layer.
Dermatitis
Collagen and elastic fibers arranged in parallel bundles which resist the forces applied to the skin during normal movement form these.
Cleavage (tension) lines
Hairs are nonliving structures produced in organs called
Hair follicles
A group of sensory nerves surrounding the base of each hair follicle is called
root hair plexus
A bundle of smooth muscle cells which pull on the hair follicle when stimulated, causing the hair to stand upright is called
arrector pili muscle
This is the portion that anchors the hair into the skin and begins at the hair bulb.
Hair root
Different forms of this give hair its color.
Melanin
These glands are holocrine glands that discharge a lipid secretion into hair follicles.
Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
These are the two types of sudoriferous (sweat) glands.
Apocrine and Merocrine
These coiled, tubular glands produce a sticky, cloudy, and potentially odorous secretion into the hair follicles of the axillae (armpits), around the nipples, and in the pubic region.
Apocrine sweat glands
These coiled, tubular glands discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin.
eccrine sweat glands
These are modified sweat glands in the external auditory canal.
ceruminous glands
The pale crescent portion of the nail is called this.
lunula
These give the nail its characteristic pink color.
underlying blood vessels
The visible portion of the nail covering toenail bed is called the
nail body
The distal portion of the nail that continues past the nail bed is called the
free edge
The destruction of this nail structure prevents regrowth of the nail after injury.
nail matrix
This is the first phase in the regeneration of the skin after an injury
inflammatory phase (caused by degranulation of mast cells)
In the second phase of skin regeneration, this forms at the surface to temporarily restore the integrity of the epidermis and restrict the entry of additional microorganisms
scab or blood clot
The combination of a blood clot, fibroblasts, and an extensive capillary network is called
granulation tissue (migratory phase 2)
The formation of this inflexible, fibrous, and noncellular structure completes the repair process but fails to restore the tissue to its original condition
Scar tissue (Maturation phase 4)
These harmless areas of raised fibrous scar tissue commonly develop on the upper back, shoulders, anterior chest, and earlobes.
Keloids
Another name for the cuticle that overlies the root
Eponychium
Free edge extends over
hyponychium
Calculates the area involved in a burn
Rule of Nines
Urticaria
hives
Caused by fungus
ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch
medical term for blackhead
comedo
A flat, localized change in skin color; freckles
macule
Accumulation of fluid in the papillary dermis, a localized elevation of the overlying epidermis; hives
wheal
a solid elevated area containing epidermal and papillary dermal components; mosquito bite
papule
large papules that may extend into the subcutaneous layer; cyst
nodule
blister, a papule with a fluid core; a large one is a bulla; second-degree burn
vesicle
a papule-sized lesion filled with pus; pimple
pustule
ulcer, may occur following the rupture of a vesicle or pustule; eroded sites have lost part or all of the normal epidermis; decubitis ulcer
erosion
an accumulation of dried sebum, blood, or interstitial fluid over the surface of the epidermis; seborrheic dermatitis, scabs, impetigo
crust
abnormal keratinization, thin plates of cornfield cells; psoriasis
scales
a split in the integument that extends through the epidermis and into the dermis; athlete's foot
fissure