The 2 major components of the integumentary system
The cutaneous membrane and the accessory structures
The loose connective tissue found deep to the dermis, also known as the superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer
These structures are located primarily in the dermis and protrude through the epidermis to the skin surface
Accessory structures (hair, nails, and multicellular exocrine glands)
Three of the four threats the integument protects the underlying tissues and organs from
impact, abrasion, fluid loss, chemical attack
Each time a stem cell divides, one of the daughter cells is pushed superficially from the stratum basal into the
The stratum basale forms these, which extend into the dermis. Fingerprints reveal their pattern.
In thick skin, this is the order of the epidermal layers from deep to superficial
Stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
This is a brown, yellow-brown, or black pigment produces by specialized cells located in the stratum basale
This is an orange-yellow pigment that normally accumulates in epidermal cells. It is found in a variety of orange vegetables.
These are located in the stratum basal, squeezed between or deep to the epithelial cells. They manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosine.
In darker skin, the melanosomes are larger and can travel more superficially into this layer of the epidermis
The reticular layer consists of an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue containing theses two types of fibers.
Collagen and elastic
Collagen and elastic fibers arranged in parallel bundles which resist the forces applied to the skin during normal movement form these.
Cleavage (tension) lines
A bundle of smooth muscle cells which pull on the hair follicle when stimulated, causing the hair to stand upright is called
arrector pili muscle
These glands are holocrine glands that discharge a lipid secretion into hair follicles.
Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
These coiled, tubular glands produce a sticky, cloudy, and potentially odorous secretion into the hair follicles of the axillae (armpits), around the nipples, and in the pubic region.
Apocrine sweat glands
These coiled, tubular glands discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin.
eccrine sweat glands
This is the first phase in the regeneration of the skin after an injury
inflammatory phase (caused by degranulation of mast cells)
In the second phase of skin regeneration, this forms at the surface to temporarily restore the integrity of the epidermis and restrict the entry of additional microorganisms
scab or blood clot
The combination of a blood clot, fibroblasts, and an extensive capillary network is called
granulation tissue (migratory phase 2)
The formation of this inflexible, fibrous, and noncellular structure completes the repair process but fails to restore the tissue to its original condition
Scar tissue (Maturation phase 4)
These harmless areas of raised fibrous scar tissue commonly develop on the upper back, shoulders, anterior chest, and earlobes.
Accumulation of fluid in the papillary dermis, a localized elevation of the overlying epidermis; hives
ulcer, may occur following the rupture of a vesicle or pustule; eroded sites have lost part or all of the normal epidermis; decubitis ulcer
an accumulation of dried sebum, blood, or interstitial fluid over the surface of the epidermis; seborrheic dermatitis, scabs, impetigo