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all living things operating directly or indirectly to influence the lives of each other
Non living, physical, and chemical conditions in an environment (winds, temperature, availability of water, solar energy, natural disturbances)
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all earth's ecosystems
What are the levels of organization in the size of an ecosystem?
organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
The number of individuals of a particular species within a population in a certain area
Pop density sampling technique-
1.mark off a particular area
2.count # of a particular species within this boundary
3.repeat the procedure in several locations
4.average results to estimate pop density
sampling technique for organisms that move around-count nests, burrows, or tracks rather than the organisms themselves
1.capture animals in area and mark them
2.animals are released
3.ecologists then capture them again(1 yr later) from the population and counts the marked and unmarked individuals in the 2nd sample
physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that restrict a populations growth (space, availability of food, disease)
The population multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals= every number of mins, population grows at the same time without stopping. Unrealistic. a pop. increases by a fixed percent (j-shaped curve)
special arrangement of organisms in one area (clumped, close, spread apart from one another)(random, uniformed, clumped)
A rapid increase for a time, followed by stabilized growth when the population reaches the carrying capacity of the environment
The number of organisms in a population that the environment can maintain with no net increase or decrease(s-shaped curve)
A factor that limits a population more as population density increases (food availability, water, space, disease, predators)
A factor that limits populations but are unrelated to population density (extreme weather events, hurricanes, blizzards, ice storms, droughts)
Organisms that take in light energy from sunlight to make its own food and then produce chemical energy that serve as food for other organisms in an ecosystem (photosynthesis, base of food chain) PRODUCE energy
Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms in their environment (role important for constant recycling of chemicals)
A consumer that feeds directly on producers (insects, antelope, deer, birds that eat seeds and fruit)
occurs between 2 species if they both require the same limited resource (food, space, mates)
two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical(if they do, they adapt different niches)
A unique living arrangement of an organism defined by its habitat, food sources, time of day its most active, and other factors
not all sunlight is taken in by producers and other parts of the trophic level. they take in what they need and give back what they dont
water loss from the leaves of trees after it precipitates and is absorbed into the ground
network of interconnecting and branching food chains-more realistic structure of ecosystem
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