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These flashcards were made using Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12e, by Tortora and Derrickson.

Respiratory system consists of...
How is it classified?

Nose, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and lungs
It can be classified by structure or function.

What parts are included in the structural classification of the respiratory system?

Upper: Nose, pharynx, and associated structures
Lower: Larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs

What parts are included in the respiratory zone functional group of the respiratory system? What is their function?

Tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli; main sites of gas exchange between air and blood

Otorhinolaryngology deals with the...

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ears, nose, and throat

A pulmonologist specializes in the...

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lungs

External nose

Portion of the nose visible on the face; consists of a supporting framework of bone and hyaline cartilage covered with muscle and skin and lined by a mucous membrane

Bony framework of the external nose is formed from...

Frontal bone, nasal bones, and maxillae

Cartilaginous framework of the external nose is formed from...
Why is it somewhat flexible?

Septal nasal cartilage, lateral nasal cartilages, and the alar cartilages
It consists of hyaline cartilage.

What parts are included in the conducting zone functional group of the respiratory system? What is their function?

Series of interconnecting cavities and tubes both outside and within the lungs - nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles; their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it to lungs

What is the other name for external nares?


What are the functions of the external nose?

Warming, moistening, and filtering incoming air
Detecting olfactory stimuli
Modifying speech vibrations as they pass through the chambers

Internal nose


What does the internal nose communicate with?

Communicates with the pharynx through the internal nares (choanae)

What ducts open into the internal nose?

Ducts from the paranasal sinuses (which drain mucus) and the nasolacrimal ducts(which drain tears)

What else do the paranasal sinuses do besides produce mucus?

Serve as resonating chambers when we speak or sing

Nasal cavity

Space within the internal nose - nasal vestiblue, nasal septum, and parts of the vomber, ethmoid, maxillae, and palatine bones

What does the nasal vestiblue do?

When air enters the nostrils, it passes the nasal vestiblue first and the hairs on it filter out dust particles

What is the relationship between conchae and meatuses?

The nasal conchae subdivide in the nasal cavity into 3 goove groovelike passageways called the meatuses.
The arrangement increases the surface area in the internal nose and prevents dehydration by trapping water droplets during exhalation.

Olfactory epithelium

Lies in the superior nasal conchae, adjacent to the septum; contain the olfactory receptors

How are particles removed from the respiratory tract?

1. When it enters the conchae and meatuses, it is warmed up by blood in the capillaries.
2. Mucus from goblet cells moistens the air and traps dust particles.
3. Drainage from nasolacrimal ducts and paranasal sinuses moisten the air.
4. Cilia move the mucus and trap dust particles towards the pharynx, at which point they can be swallowed or spit out.

Pharynx: Location and composition

Lies posterior to the nasal and oral cavities, superior to the larynx, and just anterior to the cervical vertebrae
It's wall is composed of skeletal muscles and lined with a mucous membrane; skeletal muscles helps with swallowing.

What are the functions of the pharynx?

Passageway for air and food
Provides resonating chamber for speech sounds
Houses the tonsils which participate in the immunological reactions against foreign invaders

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