A&P 2 final

The central nervous system (CNS) refers to the:
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The cerebral cortex contains:grey matter and neuronal cell bodiesT or F: The limbic system is a functional group of structures that produces melatonin to help maintain a proper circadian rhythm.FalseCerebrospinal fluid is foundbetween the arachnoid mater and the pia materWhen the cerebrospinal fluid has finished circulating through the central nervous system, it then...joins the venous blood leaving the skullT or F: The brain is poorly vascularized, which is why it relies almost solely on CSF for the oxygen and nutrients it requires.FalseArachnoid granulationsallow CSF to leave the subarachnoid spaceSpecialized glial cells in the brain produce CSF by filteringbloodMultiple Sclerosis is a disease that involves the destruction of myelin. This disease would primarily affect _________ in the brain.oligodendrocytesYou suspect your roommate has meningitis. How would you recommend she get tested for that?a CSF sample, taken from approximately the L3 regionA ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called a:gyrusWhat part of the brain filters and relays almost all of the sensory information on its way to the sensory cortex?thalamusMelaninis synthesized by melanocytesThe _________ plexus will supply nerve connections to the thighs and calves.sacralThe act of raising my arm to grab something from a shelf primarily involves which division of the nervous system?somatic motorT or F: The sympathetic chain is made of the sympathetic ganglia, which are found inside the CNS.FalseThe thoracolumbar division of the ANS is the:sympatheticPreganglionic fibers in the somatic NS as well as the autonomic NSrelease acetylcholineThe adrenal medullais nervous tissueChromaffin cellsare found in the adrenal medullaIncreased sympathetic stimulation will _________the availability of blood glucose and fatty acids.increaseWhat is the effect of increased sympathetic stimulation on digestive activity?decreaseWhat is the effect of increased parasympathetic stimulation on sweat glands?No effectMost visceral organs receive _____________ innervation.dualAutonomic tone refers to:the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activityT or F: Referred pain happens when nerve fibers from regions of high sensory input and nerve fibers from regions of normally low sensory input are served by the same spinal segment.TrueSlide 22 of the nervous system slides implies that all neuroglial cells are found in grey matter, but this isn't exactly true. Which of the following glial cells would you actually expect to find in the white matter of the brain?oligodendrocytesT or F: Exocrine glands are part of the endocrine system.FalseThe actions and responses of the endocrine system:are always involuntaryPeptide hormones arehydrophilicT or F: One of the greatest differences between hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormones is that hydrophobic hormones travel in the bloodstream whereas hydrophilic hormones may only travel in the interstitial fluid.FalseT or F: Hydrophobic molecules are able to diffuse directly through a cell membrane without requiring any help.TrueHydrophilic hormones are metabolized by theliverWhat makes a target cell for a hormone?the presence of receptors for that hormoneT or F: Albumin may act as a carrier protein, meaning it binds to a hormone in the plasma, leaves the blood still bound to that hormone, and deposits it inside the target cell.TrueAlmost all plasma proteins (not the gamma globulins) are synthesized in the _________.liverA hormone bound to its transport proteinwill remain intact longerInsulin is a peptide hormone released from the pancreas. Some of its target cells are skeletal muscle and hepatocytes (cells in the liver). Where are the insulin receptors found?on the surface of the target cellsA steroid hormone encounters a non-target cell. What happens?no interactionT or F: Insulin is released from the pancreas via a duct. You AnsweredFalseT or F: The endocrine system is slower to act than the nervous system and its actions generally last longer, so it tends to be used for long term regulation of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction.TrueIf a hormone's receptor is found in the cytosol of the target cell, I already know that the hormone:is going to alter gene expressionWhen a hydrophilic hormone binds to its receptor,a 2nd messenger is used to activate an enzyme cascadeT or F: The responsiveness of a target cell to a hormone may depend on the influences exerted by other hormones.TrueThe pancreasreleases hormones and contains ductsIt's Tuesday so you wake up, go straight to Dunkin Donuts, and gorge yourself on all the sugar. Which of the following hormones would you most expect your body to release about an hour later in response?insulin, from beta cellsInsulininitiates a signal transduction cascade in target cellsIf you're exercising hard, which of the following hormones would your body most likely release in response?glucagonT or F: Hypothalamic hormones provoke the release of all anterior and posterior pituitary hormones.FalseT or F: The adrenal medulla releases epinephrine/norepinephrine under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system whereas the adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids under the influence of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.FalseWhat is the physical connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary called?the infundibulumWhich of the following hormones is released from the hypothalamus?growth-hormone inhibiting hormoneWhich group of words goes together?zona glomerulosa / aldosterone / mineralocorticoidThe neurohypophysis releases:oxytocinTarget cells for adrenocorticotropic hormone are found in theadrenal cortexOxytocin:stimulates uterine contractionsThe hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis controls the release of which hormone(s)?cortisolWhich of the following organs has ducts in them?the pancreasThe hormone that has an antagonistic relationship with calcitonin is:parathyroid hormoneT or F: All hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus enter a hypothalamic-pituitary portal system that delivers them to the adenohypophysis.FalseGonadotropin releasing hormone is synthesized in the ___________ and released from the ___________.hypothalamus; hypothalamusWhich of the following organs/glands is considered the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems?hypothalamusIncreasing amounts of thyroid hormones in the blood stream will likely cause a(n) ________ in the secretion of thyrotropin releasing hormone.decreaseT or F: All of the hormones produced by cells of the adrenal cortex are hydrophobic.TrueAn ACE inhibitorwould result in decreased aldosterone secretionCortisol:increases the release of fatty acidsIf you give a patient with chronically low cortisol levels adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the cortisol levels stay low, where would you expect the problem to be located?zona fasciculataT or F: Calcitonin is released from parafollicular cells when blood calcium levels increase.TrueT or F: Melatonin is released at the end of the hypothalamic-pituitary-melotonin axis.FalseBefore the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone would be lacking?parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormoneWhen blood calcium levels fall, which cells get more active?osteoclast cellsCalcitonin will _________ Ca+2 reabsorption in the kidneysdecreaseA hormone that produces gluconeogenesis in the liver is:cortisolAn iodine deficiency will causehypothyroidismMany of the effects of the thyroid hormones resemble the effects of _________ stimulation.sympatheticIf you inject thyroid stimulating hormone into someone, what would you expect to result (directly or indirectly)?increased T3 and T4If you inject thyrotropin releasing hormone into someone, what would you expect to result (directly or indirectly)?increased thyroid stimulating hormone and increased T3 and T4If your roommate is nervous, has insomnia, has lost weight, is tired and weak, and kinda sweaty, can you just go ahead and diagnose hyperthyroidism?no, because there are more tests requiredIf your roommate has primary hypothyroidism, where is the problem?follicular cellsT or F: The presence of renin causes more angiotensin II to be present in the bloodstream (directly or indirectly).TrueYour roommate has woken up tired and grumpy again and she's complaining that she's depressed. What are the chances that she's hyperthyroid?The chances are slim that she has any kind of thyroid issue, but you have no good way of making a diagnosis about her thyroid based on common and vague clinical signs like hers.What does erythropoiesis mean?the production of red blood cellsT or F: Blood carries a high concentration of O2 from the body's tissues back to the lungs and releases it into the air.FalseT or F: Blood, while important in carrying nutrients and wastes throughout the body, plays no role in the regulation of body temperature.FalseMost of the fluid of the body is found in which compartment?cytosolBlood is defined as a fluid connective tissue with __________ as its matrix.plasmaMost of the plasma proteins are made in theliverIf you remove the plasma from the blood, what you have left over are mostly...erythrocytesMore of these granular leukocytes are seen in the presence of parasitic infections and/or allergic reactions:eosinophilsAnemia:may indicate a deficiency in the oxygen-carrying capacity of your bloodT or F: Red blood cells are full of oxygen, which makes it very easy for them to produce the massive amounts of ATP required to keep up with their metabolic rate. Their lives are short and brutal so they're constantly repairing themselves.FalseRBCshave a protein-rich cytoplasmSickle-cell disease is characterized by a change in the shape of the rbc from a smooth, biconcave disc into a crescent or half-moon shape. These misshapen cells lack the plasticity that normal rbcs have. How might this be a problem?this lack of flexibility could cause too many of them to be caught up and removed by the spleen, leading to anemiaAs erythrocytes are lysed, what happens to the iron ions inside them?transferrin carries them to the bone marrowThe most immediate protection against blood loss?vascular constrictionLiver damagecould interfere with the synthesis of clotting factorsPetechiae are associated withlow platelet numbersErythropoiesisoccurs in response to hypoxia, occurs in the red bone marrow, results in the increase in number of circulating red blood cellsT or F: If your urine is dark yellow one day, the most likely cause would be that you're releasing too much urobilin because you're breaking down your red blood cells too fast and you need to slow down before you become anemic.FalseThe types of "blood doping" discussed in class refer to an end-result of ______ during a race or event.increasing an athlete's oxygen carrying capacityReticulocytesare more likely to be found in the bone marrow than in the bloodstreamMegakaryocytesare found in the bone marrowPlatelets circulate in the bloodstream for about ________ days.9-12The "erythrocyte graveyard", this area of the body acts as a filter to remove worn-out old rbcs.the spleenPlace the following terms in the proper order from most-likely-to-be-found-in-a-functioning-rbc, to about-to-be-excreted. 1.biliverdin, 2. heme, 3. bilirubin, 4. stercobilinWhich of the following waste products directly contribute to the color of a bruise?biliverdinMegakaryocytes:extend pseudopodia into the bloodstream which break off and become plateletsWhich of the following is not released by platelets?thrombopoietinT or F: When we start bleeding from some wound our bodies need to stop that bleeding but also be careful about it. Hemostasis, therefore, is a slow and systemic process that involves using all of our clotting factors at once in order to make certain the damage is controlled. In using up all of the clotting factors, we insure that coagulation will eventually stop. Fortunately, the liver makes more of those clotting proteins once the bleeding stops.FalseVascular spasmsinvolve the contraction of the smooth muscle around the blood vessel, may be triggered by serotonin release, may vary in the degree of contraction, depending on the type of injuryCoagulationinvolves a complex enzymatic cascadePlateletscan help trigger a vascular spasmT or F: Contact with extravascular collagen can activate platelets.TrueThe formation of a platelet plug involves a _____________ feedback loop.positiveSpecially cultivated leeches are sometimes used to help reattach body parts. How are they useful?they help drain the venous blood to prevent it from pooling and forming clotsEach type of hemophilia is associated with a differentclotting factorTrue of F: Platelets not only activate other platelets, but also provoke smooth muscle cells to multiply.TrueWhy is it important for people with hemophilia to not use aspirin?aspirin decreases the usefulness of plateletsThrombinis one of the end products of the coagulation cascade, converts fibrinogen to fibrin, activates plasminCan a person with type AB blood donate to a person with O blood?no, because type O people have no antigens on the surface of their rbcs, they have antibodies against A and BViruses are often difficult to treat, in part because they're foundinside living cellsT or F: Fevers are natural, often triggered by a resetting of the hypothalamus in response to some pathogen, and therefore not dangerous to you.FalseAdenoidsare close to the tonsilsT or F: Most pathogens enter the body through mucus membranes.TrueWhich of the following is not a classic sign of inflammation?bleedingAntibodies are produced bylymphocytesT or F: The hallmark of an autoimmune disease is the production of antibodies that are primed to attach to our own normal cells.TrueRheumatoid arthritis involves thesynovial membranesOxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the:left atriumT or F: The pleural and pericardial cavities are found in the dorsal body cavity while the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity are found in the larger ventral body cavity.FalseT or F: The heart is located behind the sternum with the base at the bottom of the 2nd rib and the apex in the 5th intercostal space.TrueWhich serous membrane is most closely associated with the pericardial sac (the fibrous pericardium)?the parietal pericardiumT or F: The pericardial sac is made of dense irregular connective tissue because it has to be very strong. It has to be very strong because it isn't attached to the skeleton or any other structures directly, it's just held in place by the pressure of the lungs and the other material in the mediastinum.FalseThe endocardiumis microscopically indistinguishable from endothelium, is continuous with the endothelium of the great vessels (the aorta, pulmonary vessels, and the vena cavae), covers the inner surfaces of the heart including the heart valves, is a layer of simple squamous epitheliumT or F: If you're a red blood cell passing through the tricuspid valve, you must be deoxygenated.TrueWhich of the following structures has the thickest wall?left ventricleIf you're a red blood cell leaving the lungs and headed into the heart, what is the first heart valve you would pass through?the mitral valveWhat is found inside the pericardial space?serous fluidThe thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity bya skeletal muscleHow many pulmonary veins are there in a normal heart?4How many openings are there in the left ventricle through which blood can pass?2Cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the heart require a lot of ATP so they need a lot of oxygen. How do they get that oxygen?diffusion from the blood as it passes through coronary capillariesThe coronary arterieswhen blocked, may give rise to an infarctIs there a time when all of the heart valves are open?noThe atria and ventriclesmay both be in diastole togetherThe heart valves open and close in direct response tothe pressures applied to themWhich heart valve(s) require more pressure to open?the aortic semilunar valveT or F: There are 2 times in a single cardiac cycle when all four valves are closed.TrueT or F: Atrial systole opens the AV valves.FalseCardiomyocytes are connected to each other bydesmosomes, gap junctions, intercalated discsThe action potential in cardiac muscleis longer than the action potential in skeletal muscle because calcium channels are openPlace the following cell bundles in the correct sequence by time. 1. Bundle of His 2. Purkinje fibers 3. AV node 4. SA node 5. bundle branches4, 3, 1, 5, 2T or F: The wave of depolarization travels at different speeds through different parts of the heart.TrueThe atriacontract in a base-to-apex directionCells of the SA node have a pacemaker activity ____________ that of cells of the AV node.faster thanT or F: For Purkinje fibers, the wave of depolarization and the wave of contraction are moving in the same direction.TrueIf you have cells of the SA node that are firing at a rate that's out of synch with the heartbeat, which of the following is most likely to be occurring?atrial flutterA defibrillator:depolarizes all of the cells of the heart at once so that the pacemaker can reestablish control of the rateT or F: There are cells in the ventricles that may spontaneously depolarize.TrueOpening many potassium channels at the pacemaker would be most likely to causebradycardiaI've told you before that all cells have a membrane potential. Why is it less straightforward to claim that all cells have a resting membrane potential?because some cells of the body have an abundance of leaky sodium ion channels which are constantly increasing the membrane potential.T or F: A cardiac cycle consists of one complete contraction and relaxation of all four heart chambers.TrueT or F: Blood is moving during systole but not during diastole.FalseT or F: Systole only occurs during the daytime and diastole only occurs at night. If you work at night and sleep during the day, this is reversed, which is why it takes a little while to get used to working all night.FalseWhich happens first in a normal adult heart during a normal cardiac cycle? The closing of the AV valves or the closing of the semilunar valves?AV valves close first, then semilunars closeWhich is under greater pressure during atrial systole?the aortaIs the aortic pressure ever exceeded by the pressure of any other part of the heart?yes, the left ventricular pressureT or F: At rest, most of the cardiac cycle is taken up by ventricular systole, which explains the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential.FalseT or F: Stroke volume (SV) = End diastolic volume (EDV) minus End systolic volume (ESV).TrueT or F: At the end of ventricular systole, the ventricles have been emptied of blood.FalseWhich comes first in a normal cardiac cycle that begins with atrial systole, an isovolumetric ventricular contraction or an isovolumetric ventricular relaxation?an isovolumetric ventricular contractionThe first heart sound that you hear in a normal cardiac cycle is associated withthe AV valves closingCardiac outputmay increase with increased heart rateT or F: The cardiac reserve is a standard number and is the same for all people of the same general size.FalseT or F: Branches of the cardiac nerve release thyroid hormones, epinephrine, and norepinephrine onto the cardiomyocytes, increasing heart rate and contractility.FalseStimulation of the heart via the vagus nerve will most likelyStimulation of the heart via the vagus nerve will most likelyA rise in the carbon dioxide concentration would likelyincrease the HR via the medulla oblongataYou arrive at your house to discover that your parents have bought one of those inverters that you strap into for the purpose of hanging upside-down. Your little brother has just strapped himself in and, while you watch, begins to hang upside-down from it. What would you expect might happen to his heart rate?you'd expect it to slow downT or F: End-diastolic volume is measured at the end of ventricular diastole.TrueIf you increase the cardiac filling time, what effect will that have on the stroke volume?increaseIncreasing cardiomyocyte permeability to calcium ions will __________ end-systolic volume (ESV) and ___________ stroke volume (SV).decrease; increaseA decrease in afterload would be expected to __________ end-systolic volume (ESV) and ___________ stroke volume (SV).decrease; increaseWhich of the following would you expect to increase heart rate?epinephrine, thyroid hormones; increased venous returnT or F: Significant gas exchange takes place across the endothelium of all blood vessels regardless of size.FalseThe vasa vasorumis a capillary bed, allows for gas exchange, supplies the blood vessels themselves with oxygen supportT or F: Arteries are taking blood to areas distal to your shoulder whereas veins are bringing blood back up your arm towards the shoulder.TrueThe largest pressure drop in the circulatory system occursin the changeover from arterioles to capillariesWhich of the following tissues would you expect to have more blood capillaries in them?the skeletal muscle in your fingertipAt rest, most of the blood in your circulatory system is found:in the veins and venulesThe pressure difference between the ____________ and the ______________ is known as the circulatory pressure.base of the ascending aorta; entrance to the right atriumThe diaphragm _________ during inspiration. This leads to a(n) ____________ in pressure in the thoracic cavity.falls; decreaseWhen measuring blood flow, we define it as the difference in blood pressure between 2 points divided by the resistance. What is the source of resistance that your body can quickly change?the diameter of the vesselsIf you wiggle your finger for 10 minutes straight, what will happen first as your working muscles begin to want more oxygen?the arterioles in your forearm dilate_____________ the resistance inside the circulatory system will increase the flow of blood.decreasingWhich of the following hormones would be expected to increase the amount of water lost in the urine?natriuretic peptidesOn the venous end of a systemic capillary, ______________ pressure is greater than _______________ pressure and so fluid tends to move __________ the capillary.BCOP; CHP; intoWhat could cause an increase in the BCOP?an increase in the solutes in the bloodFluid in the lymphatic system is primarily ___________ being filtered through cells of the ___________.interstitial fluid; immune systemT or F: An increase in fluid in the interstitium will directly lead to an increase in fluid in the lymphatic system.TrueThe area around the right ear is drained by theright lymphatic ductT or F: Lymphedema is the condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system.TrueThe tracheahas a lining that includes goblet cellsThe adenoidsare a collection of lymphatic tissues that filter lymph draining down from the sinusesA tracheostomy would be most useful fora big chunk of corncob in the larynxWhat's the difference between terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles? The presence of _____.alveoliWhat would you expect to find inside an alveolus?macrophagesT or F: There are approximately 2-10 lobules inside each alveolar duct.FalseThe blood vessels carrying blood away from the capillary bed around an alveolus are carrying:blood high in oxygenTo get from inside the alveolus to inside a red blood cell, a molecule of oxygen would have to diffuse through:Type I pneumocytes, endothelium, interstitial fluidWhich are there more of: terminal bronchioles or respiratory bronchioles?respiratoryT or F: The alveolar surface has almost as many goblet cells as it has type II pneumocytes.FalseSurfactant:interferes with hydrogen bonding, which allows water to be present in the alveoli, but not interfere with the movement of air. It allows the tissues to be a little moist, but not wet enough to interfere with gas exchangeThe serous membrane most closely associated with the wall of the thoracic cavity is theparietal pleuraHow many lung lobes does an average adult have?5If you want to raise the pressure inside a closed space you should:decrease the volume of that spaceT or F: The pleura produces a layer of serous fluid that decreases friction between the moving parts and provides suction to keep the parietal and visceral pleura linked togetherTrueWhen the diaphragm contracts, pressure in the abdominal cavity:increasesForced exhalation primarily contracts which muscles?internal intercostalsVenous blood vessels in the pulmonary circuit are _________ the alveoli and carrying _____________ blood.going towards ; deoxygenatedT or F: Gas exchange between the blood and alveoli and in the tissues occurs by simple diffusion and is driven by differences in the partial pressures of the gases.TrueHemoglobin reversibly binds to:O2, CO2, H+How does the majority of CO2 travel from the tissues to the alveolus?as bicarbonateIn the systemic circuit, the chloride shift is describing the movement of Cl- from theplasma into the red blood cellsSuppose you're breathing rapidly into and out of a plastic bag. What would you expect to happen?your CO2 levels would rise in the tissuesWhy do chronic cigarette smokers have that distinctive cough?the cilia in the airways have been disabledWhich of the following macromolecules have breakdown products that end up in the bloodstream?saccharides, nucleic acids, triglycerides, lipidsChemical protein digestion begins in thestomachPolysaccharides are broken down in the GI tract to ___________ by ______________.simple sugars; amylasesPeristalsis in the GI tractinvolves smooth muscleThe stomach:contains chymeThe primary responsibility of chief cells is toproduce enzymes to aid in digestionThe plicae circulares are shelves that protrude out into the lumen of the small intestine to:increase the surface area of the small intestineIf you're lactose intolerant, where is this deficiency physically located?inside the brush borderThe right lymphatic duct is ________ likely to be high in triglycerides and lipids.notT or F: Bile acids aid in the emulsification of fat, converting small fat globules into larger ones so that they can be pushed into the lymphatic system for distribution.FalseHow can someone live without a gall bladder?they can take bile salts with food as a supplementBile salts aremade in the liver and stored in the gall bladderPut the following anatomical structures in order from proximal to distal: 1.ileocecal junction 2. pyloric sphincter 3. cecumcardiac sphincter 4. rugae4,5,2,1,3T or F: Generally speaking, because we produce so much fluid from salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, etc., we excrete more fluid than we absorb.FalseA zymogenis an enzymatic precursorAlcohol absorbed through the epithelial lining of the distal large intestine is dangerously potent becauseit doesn't pass through the liver before entering the general circulation