The relationships and processes of cooperation, conflict, social control, and power that are fundamental aspects of human life
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Terms in this set (194)
A political system, such as a band or a tribe, in which power and control over resources are dispersed between members of the society.non-centralized political systemA political system, such as a chiefdom or a state, in which certain individuals and institutions hold power and control over resources.Centralized Political systemSubsistence: Foraging Population Density: Low Type of Economic Exchange: Reciprocity Social Stratification: Egalitarian Ownership of Property: Little or no sense of personal ownership Type of Leadership: Informal Law and Legitimate Control of Force: No formal laws or punishments Some Examples: !Kung SanBandSubsistence: Horticulture and pastoralism Population Density: Low to medium Type of Economic Exchange: Reciprocity and trade Social Stratification: Egalitarian Ownership of Property: Lineage or clan ownership Type of Leadership: Charismatic Headman Law and Legitimate Control of Force: Some Examples:TribeSubsistence: Intensive Agriculture Population Density: High Type of Economic Exchange: Markets and trade Social Stratification: Social Classes Ownership of Property: Private and state Type of Leadership: Leader supported Law and Legitimate Control of Force: Formal Laws and Punishment Some Examples: Aztec, IncaStateSubsistence: Extensive Agriculture Population Density: Medium Type of Economic Exchange: Redistribution through chiefs Social Stratification: Ranked Ownership of Property: Lineage or clan based Type of Leadership: Charismatic chief with limited power Law and Legitimate Control of Force: May have informal laws and specified punishments, chief has limited access to coercion Some Examples:ChiefdomThe processes by which people create, compete, and use power to attain goals that are presumed to be for the good of a communityPolitical PowerAn approach in the anthropological study of politics that closely follows the daily activities and decision-making processes of individual political leaders emphasizing that politics is a dynamic and competitive field of social relations in which people are constantly managing their ability to exercise power over others.Action theorypower that not only operates within settings, but that also organizes those and orchestrates the settings in which social and individual actions take placeStructural powerIndependent states recognized by other states, composed of people who share a single national identity.Nation StatesThe legal process by which an individual or council with socially recognized authority intervenes in a dispute and unilaterally makes a decision. (going to court)AdjudicationA form of dispute management in which the parties themselves reach a decision jointly.negotiationthe use of a third party who intervenes in a dispute to help the parties reach an agreement and restore harmonyMediationPolitical PowerControl over symbolic, material, and human resources are important dimensions ofpower is used to attain goals for the good of the community.For anthropologists, political power refers to howa study of children bullying each other on the playground in BrazilWhich of the following is not a research agenda that focuses on structural power?legitimacyThe exercise of political power requiresAdjudication______ as a form of dispute management can involve hearings presided over by respected people in a community.FalseBig men can transfer their power and status through inheritance when they legitimating community authorityHow do religious rituals function politically?It is the use of force to cause harm to someone or something.Which of the following is an element of violence?It implies age-old conflicts are not affected by historical or political events.Why is the description of conflict as "ethnic violence" misleading?Bands: are defined by being decentralized and, and having a decision made by consensus with no formal leaders States: this is centralized and has multiple bodies governing over it such as having a government. An example of this is modern society in many countries such as americaName at least two of the four types of society that make up Marshall Sahlins and Elman Service's model of sociopolitical evolution, and describe the type of political authority that defines each one.He did this because in the gypsy culture it is normal to trade social security numbers with your relatives. As a result, this did not seem like a criminal act by him but rather a norm in the community as he had no criminal intent in using his cousin's social security number. They often use fake social security numbers to remain unknown by mainstream society.In the article "Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of an American Gypsy" written by A. Sutherland, the author describes a case of a Gypsy man who was arrested for using the social security number of a relative on a car loan application. According to the norms of Gypsy culture, why did the man use his relative's social security number and not his own?The cause of the ostracism faced by N!ai in the video is due to her not sharing with people less money (material belongings) in her village as they think she is hiding something. This represents a form of social control as spreading the gossip about her daughter sleeping with a stranger puts N!ai to be looked down upon by her village which essentially punished her for not sharing as much with others. I'm not completely sure but it also could be because she agreed to work with the white anthropologistsWhat was the fundamental cause of the ostracism or gossip faced by N!ai, as shown in the video, and how does this represent a form of social control in their societya) Bands Decentralized Decisions by consensus Power by influence Informal Leaders b) Tribes Power by skills and knowledge Some part-time officials Decentralized c) Chiefdoms Centralized Authority based on birth and bloodline d) States Centralized Multiple governing bodies Power based on lawBased on Service's model of sociopolitical evolution, describe the political systems associated with each categorya concept that organizes people into groups based on specific physical traits that are thought to reflect fundamental and innate differencesRaceThe social processes through which something becomes part of the natural order of thingsNaturalizationThe repressive practices, structures, beliefs, and representations that uphold racial categories and social inequality.RacismThe negative or unfair treatment of an individual because of his or her membership in a particular social group or categoryDiscriminationThe social, economic, political precesses of transforming populations into races and creating racial meaningsRacializationA concept that organizes people into groups based on their membership in a group with a particular historyEthnicitya social theory that ethnicity is largely a natural phenomenon because of biological, linguistic, and geographical ties among membersPrimordialisma social theory that ethnic groups are not naturally occurring or stable, but highly dynamic groups created to serve the interests of one powerful group or anotherInstrumentalismQThe hierarchical distinctions between social groups in society usually based on wealth, occupation, and social standing.ClassThe system of social stratification found in Indian society that divides people into categories according to moral purity and pollution.CasteThe classification of people into unequal categoriesSocial StratificationPre-formed usually unfavorable opinions that people hold about people from groups who are different from their ownprejudiceThe circumstantial interplay of race, class, gender, sexuality, and other identity markers in the expression of prejudicial beliefs and discriminatory actionsIntersectionalityEasier to identify because it makes no effort to hide and is an accepted norm, evident in institutions and laws.Explicit Discriminationmay live on well beyond the "official" end of its explicit sourceDisguised Discriminationa. Jews, Italians, and FinnsWhich of the following groups were historically considered nonwhite racial groups in the United States?Social InstitutionsThe "natural" order represented in social hierarchies of any society is supported byshopkeepers or security guards follow black customers through storesA good example of disguised discrimination is whenwealth, power, and prestigeGerman sociologist Max Weber argued that social stratification has at least three primary dimensions. What are they?FalseThe Irish and a few other groups became white during the past century, but the phenomenon of groups becoming white appears to have stabilized.Clinical______ variation means that change is gradual across groups and that traits shade and blend into each other.TrueAnthropologists agree that, in addition to prejudice and discrimination, unearned privilege upholds social inequality.Class______ refers to the hierarchical distinctions between social groups are usually based on wealth, occupation, and social standing.caste divides people in terms of moral purity, class in socioeconomic terms.A key difference between caste and social class isThis is because the statement said that race carries far more meaning to people than it does biologically as all humans share for the same part the same DNA but there is only a 6% difference in genes among racial groups.According to the AAA Statement on Race, the concept of race is discounted as a category based on biological criteria. What is one reason for that?Explicit discrimination is doing the discrimination outright such as saying to someone that they cant eat at this restaurant because of their race. Disguised discrimination is not confronting someone directly and discriminating against them but rather doing it in an indirect way such as if a minority enters a store then the workers following them to see if they will steal anything.What is the main difference between "explicit discrimination" and "disguised discrimination"?Understood in Western cultures as the reproductive forms and functions of the bodySexthe ideas and social patterns a society uses to organize males, females, and those who do not fit either categoryGender/sex systemThe complex and fluid interactions of biological sex, internal senses of self, outward expressions of identity, and cultural expectations about how to perform that identity in appropriate waysGendera characteristic of a species, in which males and females have different sexual formssexually dimorphicindividuals who exhibit sexual organs and functions somewhere between male and female elements, often including elements of bothIntersexThe ideas and practices of manhoodMasculinityexpressions of sex and gender that diverge from the male and female norms that dominate in most societiesGender Variancea category found in many societies that acknowledge three or more gender categoriesThird genderssexual preferences, desires, and practicesSexualitysomeone to whom society assigns one gender who does not perform as that gender but has taken either permanent or temporary steps to identify as another genderTransgendersomeone whose gender identity aligns with their biological sex at birth as male or femaleCisgender. Men are generally bigger and stronger than women.What is not an anthropological explanation given for the common occurrence of gender stratification in different cultural groups?. the fact that gender identities are rooted in local concepts and practicesCross-dressing rebel soldiers in Liberia is an excellent illustration of what?ignores differences among women in different cultural groups.According to some, a critical limitation of "second-wave" feminism is that it Select one:Gender_______ is the set of cultural expectations for how males and females should behave.FalseSex is a simple product of nature and biology.Obstacles in access to birth controlAn anthropologist who studies how societies control sexuality would likely be most interested in which of the following situations?shows that "sex" is constructed upon cultural assumptionsSex-assignment surgery is important because itof cross-cultural research that shows sexual practices and sexuality is variable throughout a lifetime.Anthropologists reject the idea that same-sex sexuality is a fixed and exclusive condition becausesex-specific hormones cause particular behaviorsA misconception about hormones in society is thatThe matriarchal society has a big influence on this construction as it influences the gender norms of both males and females in societyIn the article, Sexualities and Genders in Zapotec Oaxaca, the author describes four key historical influences on the contemporary construction of gender and sexuality in Zapotec Oaxaca. Name at least one (1) of the four.A female supervisor read a report written by her male subordinate which wasn't up to standard so she talked to him about it. She tried to "soften" the message by including a lot of praise first which caused the male subordinate to think there was only small issues in the report instead of big ones as his supervisor believed. As a result, when he submitted the revised report it was pretty much the same as the original which caused a communicative disconnect as the supervisor wanted big changes to be made whereas the subordinate thought that the report was good overall but just needed to make small changes.In the article, "Conversation Style: Talking on the Job," Deborah Tannen discusses contrasting conversational styles between women and men in different social contexts. In particular, she discusses a case of misunderstanding between a female supervisor and a male subordinate in a work setting. Describe the nature of this communicative disconnect.the social system that organizes people in families based on descent and marriageKinshipThe family into which a person is born and which she or he is normally raisedNatal Familythe family formed by a married couple and their childrenNuclear FamilyA visual representation of family relationshipsKinship chartgroups of people who work together toward common ends, much as a corporation doesCorporate Groupslarger groups of relatives beyond the nuclear family, often living in the same householdExtended Familiesa group of relatives who claim to be descended from a single ancestorClanA social pattern in which members of a clan must marry someone from another clan, which has the effect of building political, economic, and social ties with other clans.Exogamousa group composed of relatives who are directly descended from known ancestorsLineagebased on or tracing descent through the male linePatrilinealBased on descent through a single descent line, either males or femalesunilineal descentof or based on kinship with the mother or the female lineMatrilinealreckoning descent through either men or women from some ancestorCognaticThe structural process of forgetting whole groups of relatives, usually because they are not currently significant in social lifegenelogical amnesiaA school of thought in early and mid -twentieth-century American anthropology that studied how patterns of child-rearing, social institutions, and cultural ideologies shape individual experience, personality characteristics, and thought patterns.Culture and personality movementGifts or money given by the groom's clan or family to compensate the brides clan or family for the loss of one of its women along with her productive or reproductive rightsBride Pricemore than one spousePolygamywhen a man is simultaneously married to more than one womanPolygynywhen a woman has two or more husbands at one timePolyandryThe prohibition on sexual relations between close family membersIncest TabooCorporate GroupMany families function as groups of real people who work together toward common ends. Such family groups are referred to asDowryPayments of cash, cattle, pigs, or shell ornaments between brothers-in-law arethe psychological effects of deviations from the nuclear familyWhich of the following is not an anthropological concern that arises with in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, adoption, and the high rate of divorce and remarriage in American society?b. religious bans on family planning methods such as condom use.An anthropologist interested in how technology affects kinship would be most likely to studygenealogical amnesiaWhat do anthropologists call the structural process of forgetting whole groups of relatives?SurnamesWhich of the following do Americans traditionally inherit patrilineally?PolyandryWhen a woman marries more than one man she is practicingCulture and PersonalityThe research focus on how patterns of childrearing, social institutions, and cultural ideologies shape individual experience, personality characteristics, and thought patterns is called the _______ movement or school.FalseStudies have shown that marriage is mostly about sex.This is because in their society babies do not live very long on average and there is a very low life expectancy due to how poor the community is. As a result when a baby dies it is considered normal and in a way something to be expected due to the low average life spanAs described by Nancy Sheperd-Hughes in the article "Mother's Love: Death without Weeping", why are mothers in the Brazilian shantytown of Alto do Cruzeiro indifferent (i.e., emotionless, not sad, not crying) when their babies die?This is due in the family's ability to keep their materials assets to themselves. If all of the men marry the same women then it means that they are able to retain all of their assets in their family and not have to give any of them up if for example each man were to marry a separate girlAccording to Melvyn Goldstein in the article "Polyandry: When Brothers take a Wife", why, despite having a choice of marriage forms, including monogamy and polygyny, do many Tibetan men and women choose to practice fraternal polyandry, in which two or more brothers marry the same woman?a symbolic system that is socially enacted through rituals and other aspects of social life that relate to ultimate issues of humankind existenceReligionthe belief that inanimate objects, such as trees, rocks, and rivers, posses soulsAnimismstylized performances involving symbols that are associated with social, political, and religious activitiesRitualsSacred power believed to inhere in certain high-ranking people, sacred spaces, and objects.Manaa general approach to or set of shared unquestioned assumptions about the world and how it worksWorldviewa kind of analysis that interprets the underlying symbolic and cultural interconnections within a societyInterpretive approachA system of thought that associates particular social groups with specific animal or plant species called "totem" as an emblemTotemisma religious leader who communicates the needs of the living with the spirit world, usually through some form of ritual trance or other altered state of consciousnessShamana semi-conscious state typically brought on by hypnosis, ritual drumming, and singing, or hallucinogenic drugs like mescaline or peyoteTranceA spirit that has developed a close bond with a shamanSpirit familiarthe phenomenon of speaking in an apparently unknown language, often in an energetic and fast-paced waySpeaking in tonguesBelief in many godsPolytheismbelief in only one godMonotheismreligions that claim to be universally significant to all peopleWorld ReligionsRepetitive StylizedFeatures of a ritualan explanatory system of causation that does not follow naturalistic explanations, often working at a distance without direct physical contactMagicany magical rite that relied on the supernatural to produce its outcome without working through some supernatural being such as a spirit, demon, or deitySympathetic MagicSome point of similarity between an aspects of the magical rite and the desired goalLaw of similaritiesany life cycle rite that marks a person's or group's transition from one social state to anotherRite of Passagea worldview that does not accept the supernatural as influencing current people's livesSecular worldviewA person belonging to a religious movement that advocates a return to fundamental or traditional principlesFundamentalismconservative religious movements that advocate a return to fundamental or traditional principlesFundamentalism. magic that follows the law of similarity.A voodoo doll is a good illustration ofa projection of the power of societyFor Emile Durkheim, religion representsShamanThe religious leader who communicates the needs of the living with the spirit world, usually through some form of ritual trance or altered state of consciousness, is called a ____FundamentalistPeople who belong to conservative religious movements that advocate a return to traditional principles are calledTotemism_____ is the system of thought that associates particular social groups with specific animal or plant species.They are not secularWhich of the following is true of the dominant world religions?commitment to what they envision as a purer way of lifeA common element among fundamentalists is aThe person is an evildoer.Which of the following is not true about how anthropology interprets how and why somebody would become a suicide bomber?Sports teams mascotsWhich of the following is an example of American totemism?the emphasis on the scientific method in school curriculaf you were designing a study of secular worldviews in Europe, what would you be most likely to focus on?The warm-up ritual aka what the players do in order to prepare for the game, it said in the article that players thought that their rituals was what allowed them to keep winning.In the article "Baseball Magic", the author points out that magic is most commonly associated with what aspects of the game.Witchcraft was used culturally in order to explain unexpected events that the science at the time could not explain. An example of this is if someone fell ill and died then people would blame it on witchcraft as the science at the time could not come to the conclusion that someone was sick and what sickness it wasIn the article "The Notion of Witchcraft..", E.E. Evans-Pritchard describes and explains the cultural function of witchcraft among the Azande of the Sudan. What is this cultural function?the complex intersections of biological, psychological, and cultural processesBioculturalEmergent qualities of consciousness and intellect that manifest themselves through thought, emotion, perception, will, and imaginationMindA mental illness unique to a cultureculture-bound syndromesthe culturally defined agreement between patients and family members to acknowledge that a patient is legitimately sick, which involves certain responsibilities. and behaviors that caregivers expect of the sickSick RoleThe purely physiological condition of being sick, usually determined by a physicianDiseasethe psychological and social experience a patient has of a diseaseIllnessAn explanation of what is happening to a patient's body, by the patient, by his family, or by a health care practitioner, each of which may have a different model of what is happening.Explanatory model of illnessthe process of viewing or treating as a medical concern conditions that were not previously understood as medical problemsMedicalizationa healing process that involves the use of medicines that have some active ingredient that is assumed to address either the cause or the symptom of a disorderclinical therapeutic processA healing process that restructures the meaning of the symbols surrounding the illness, particularly during a ritualsymbolic therapeutic processA healing process that involves a patient's social networks, especially close family members and friends, who typically surround the patient during an illness.Social support therapeutic processthe healing process that works by persuading a patient that he or she has been given a powerful medicine even though the medicine has no active medical ingredientPlacebo Effectthe coexistence and interpenetration of distinct medical traditions with different cultural roots in the same cultural communityMedical pluralismAll of the aboveMedical anthropology concernhave much variation throughout different cultures and societies.Health and illnessIncreasing secularismWhich of the following is least likely to have driven the increase of medicalization in the United States?Medical pluralismNearly all societies draw on more than one medical tradition simultaneously, a process which is calledDiseaseAnthropologists refer to whatever impairs the human body in physiological ways as _______, which is typically the domain of healthcare professionals.AlcoholismA good example of the process of medicalization is found in the changing understanding of which of the following conditions as a "disease"?A mental illness unique to a cultureWhat is a "culture-bound syndrome"?Body PartsMedical anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes uncovered a large criminal network engaged in the black-market sale ofFalseHealth and illness are objective states.One of this is bowing before the charm box when entering the shrine room. Another main aspect of the ritual included in the daily routine is the mouth rite involving putting hog hairs as well as magical powers in your mouth.Horace Miner describes from a detached point of view the private or secret body rituals of the Nacirema people carried out in the household shrine. What are the main rituals or aspects of ritual that are included in this daily routine? Name at least two of these for full credit.Personalistic: This is when an illness is seen as acts or wishes of other people or supernatural beings and forces. Curers usually must use supernatural means to understand what is wrong with their patients and to return them to health instead of using medically based methods. One example of an ailment is someone being sick, due to someone becoming possessed by a spirit. Naturalistic: This illness assumes that illness is only due to impersonal, mechanistic causes in nature that can be potentially understood and cured by the application of the scientific method of discovery. Essentially a naturalistic disease is one that occurs naturally and can only be cured by using the most up to date medical practices. One example of this is the common cold. Emotionalistic: This illness is due to a negative emotional experience. For many living in Latin American countries, anxiety or fright may cause lethargy and distraction, an illness called susto. h. One example of an ailment is having a mental illnessAccording to George Foster and Barbara Anderson, all societies have disease-theory systems, which may be categorized into three basic categories: personalistic, naturalistic, and emotionalistic. Name at least one example or type of ailment from your native culture for each one.Type 1 diabetes (by being born with it) b. Lung cancer (by engaging in smoking culture) c. Asthma (Can be born with it but can also develop it)Name a disease or health problem that is: a) only determined by biology (e.g., purely physiological processes such as genes or germs), b) only determined by culture (e.g., based on belief or social behavior), and c) bothThe types of alternative naturalistic healing and healers in my society which is American society include acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy. I have used massage therapy which has helped to put my body and mind at ease. In general, these naturalistic healings are generally used for someone to alleviate pain in their body as well as to help them feel more relaxed and feel betterWhat types of alternative (non-biomedical) naturalistic healing and healers are there in your contemporary society? Have you ever used one of them? If so, for what ailment?The widening scale of cross cultural interactions caused by the rapid movement of money, people, goods, images, and ideas within nations and across national boundriesGlobilizationEarly twentieth-century Boasian anthropologists who held that cultural characteristics result from either internal historical dynamism or a spread (diffusion) of cultural attributes from other societies.Diffusionistsrelationships that extend beyond nation-state boundaries without assuming they cover the whole worldTransnationalpeople who leave their homes to work for a time in other regions or countriesMigrantspeople who enter a foreign country with no expectation of ever returning to their home countryImmigrantsPeople who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.Refugeespeople who are expelled by the authorities of their home countriesExilesthe theory that capitalism has expanded on the basis of unequal exchange throughout the world, creating a global market and global division of labor, dividing the world between a dominant "core" and a dependent "periphery"World Systems theorythe field that studies the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialismPostcolonialismThe social, economic, and political factors that "push" people to migrate from their homes and that "pull" them to host countries.Push-pull factorsA spatially extended social network that spans multiple countries.Transnational communityThe cultural attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic values that shape decision making processes around and experiences of migrationCulture of migrationthe creation and assertion of highly particular, often place-based, identities and communitiesLocalizationthe application of anthropological knowledge and research methods to the practical aspects of shaping and implementing development projectsdevelopment anthropologythe field of study within anthropology concerned with understanding the cultural conditions for proper development, or, alternatively, the negative impacts of development projectsAnthropology of developmentthe promotion of one culture over others, through formal policy or less formal means, like the spread of technology and material cultureCultural imperialismnorms and values that extend across national boundariesWorld culturepersistent cultural mixing that has no predetermined direction or end-pointHybridizationan ethnographic research strategy of following connections, associations, and putative relationships from place to place1. Why does Marshall McLuhan argue that the electronic mass media represents a return to tribal ways of thinking? 2. Welsch & Vivanco characterize globalization as persistent interactions across widening scales of social activity in three main areas. What are those key areas? Hint: I refer to these as "the ties that bind." 3. Provide a brief definition and example of the concept of "Cultural Imperialism". 4. Provide a brief definition and example of the concept of "Localization." 5. What is the difference between Development Anthropology and the Anthropology of Development? 6. What is the basic idea behind "World Systems Theory"?Multi sized ethnography