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375 HPED Final NCAT
Terms in this set (74)
Repetitive motor movements- like a rodent chewing food-are known as ___. Non-voluntary/
A central pattern generator
An example of an invariant feature is a relative timing.
According to Schmidt's theory of motor control the mechanism primary responsible for the control of coordinated movement controls.
A class of actions
According to Schmidt's theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program?
Reaching and grasping an object with either hand
In the gait analysis experiment, in which different relative timing patterns are described for walking and running (see below), a motor program view would conclude that
One GMP controls walking and a different GMP controls running
Terrance find that he can jump over a 12" box as well as a 24" box. He is varying one of the __ of the GMP
The term used to describe a bimanual coordination task that requires the two hands to simultaneously perform movements that have the same spatial and temporal characteristics is
The reason we have difficulty tapping our heads and rubbing our stomachs at the same time with our two hands is that our motor control system is organized in such a way that our two hands prefer to move in the same ways at the same time.
The playing of a guitar is a good example of performing.
An asymmetric bimanual skill
There is evidence that movement time and coordination for two limbs completing different, incongruent task (bimanual asymmetric task) are determined by two different motor programs.
What movement such as bimanual hand movement (see pic) is sped up, at some point a(n)___ coordination pattern will switch to a(n)____ coordination pattern.
Anti-phase/out-of phase; in-phase
Which of the following is an example of symmetric bimanual coordination?
Doing a standing broad jump
What do we know about resistance training in one limb?
Strength can increase in an untrained contralateral limb
The phospholipid layer(fatty layer) that covers the axon is called the ___ sheath.
The motor system is calling the ___ system; it sends signals to the muscle to contract. The sensory system receives sensory input and is also called the __ system.
Neurons release ____ to communicate information between other neurons, these are __ messengers.
Which statement is false?
All sensory input to the nervous system goes to the brain for interpretation
The all or none law in regard to the conduction of an action potential means that
If a (sensory) stimulus exceeds the threshold, the nerve or muscle fiber will give a complete response or no response.
Which of the following diseases results in loss of myelin around the nerve cell?
The primary neurotransmitter that is involved in the innervation of muscles is
Some neurotransmitters are excitatory and some are inhibitory.
After the threshold is met for an action potential (AP), there is a short amount of time in which another AP cannot be initiated. This is called the
When Amir first places his bare feet on a cold floor, he notices the temperature of the surface, but after a few minutes, he doesn't notice the temperature. This is an example of
Help(s) maintain balance and orientation. Fluid filled
Motion sickness is due to
a mismatch in visual system input and vestibular sensory input
When the head rotates to the right, the eyes rotated to the left in order to stabilize the body. This is called
Vestibulo ocular reflex
Sasha makes balancing movements throughout her bike ride. Ruth's postural anticipation of her leaning forward to pick up a cup. Sasha's movements involve processes.
How do we perceive equilibrium and balance when our head tilts? Order
c. the fluid in the semicircular canals moves, b. the hairs in the semicircular canals are bent d. the bent hairs (mechanoreceptors) in the semicircular canals a. the vestibular nerve carries the electrical signal to the brain.
These 3 fluid filled organs in the ear are perpendicular (at right angles) to each orientation.
The action potential produced by the hairs in the semicircular canals is an example of
____ refer(s) to stable and enduring traits that are genetically determined and underlie a person's skilled performance.
All of the following statements are true except
There is an underlying general ability for balance skills
Visual acuity, color vision, height, and build are considered skills more than abilities.
The specificity hypothesis suggest that many specific and independent motor abilities are the basis for every type of motor performance.
Research has demonstrated that static and dynamic balance abilities are
Independent non-correlated motor abilities
The more choices we have in terms of motor movements, the slower our reaction time. This is ___ Law.
Which statement is false in regards to abilities?
It is fairly easy to predict future performance using the physical proficiency abilities list.
Tina says that Michael Jordan is a "good all-round" athlete. Is there such a thing?
Which box in the figure above represents actual reaction time?
Which one of the following could be implemented in order to reduce reaction time (make it faster)?
Give advance information about when the stimulus will occur
Improvements in motor coordination can be
Intramuscular and intermuscular
What statement is false in regards to motor unit recruitment?
Motor units are generally recruited in order of largest to smallest motor neurons
In the picture below, we see an athlete performing a long jump. The first part of the movement (A) is where he lowers himself (flexes knee & hip) and places his left foot on the ground. They type of contraction A is
In that same picture above, we see a time where he is shifting from one type of contraction to a different type of contraction. This phase is pictured as B and is called the ___ phase.
Which of the following statement is false in regard to our stretch-shorten cycle lab?
Making the amortization period really long can result in an improved (higher) vertical jump
The frequency or rate of firing of action potentials in the nervous system improves with training and practice. This phenomenon is called
Many explosive activities (like the box jumping) involves a countermovement prior to a rapid concentric contraction (jumping off the floor). This takes advantage of a phenomenon called the
How would you characterize the nervous system when we are just standing or just sitting?
The slow twitch fibers are being used
Research shows that some of the early improvements in a strength training program are due to neural drive. All but one of the following is not a factor in neural drive.
Temperature of the axon during transmission
Usain Bolt (elite sprinter) make use of his __ twitch fibers during competition. These fibers are recruited ___ when we do movements.
After we engage in long term strength training, we find that
Fewer motor units are needed to complete the movement
In this picture of shoulder abduction, we see several muscles contributing. This is an example of
Rate coding is the firing rate of motor units. Which statement is false in regards to rate coding?
When our workout intensity is high (80%-100%), we see and increase in firing rate and when intensity is moderate (50-80% ), we see more motor units involved
A motor unit is
The number of muscle fibers stimulated by one muscle neuron
What type of information is detected by muscles spindles?
Which of the following is not an example of information detected by an exteroceptor?
What term describes the effect of the amount and type of prior muscle activity on a subsequent reflex action?
Which happens to the right triceps when the right biceps is stretched?
Inhibition from contracting
Help(s) maintain balance and orientation. Fluid filled.
The neck reflex associated with neck extension is
Both arms extend and the neck flexes
Fatigue associated with resistance training is only related to the physical fatigue of the muscle fibers
Put these patellar tendon reflex steps in the proper order (first to last). The physician taps the right patellar tendon
What part of the brain receives the sensory signals and disperses them throughout the brain?
In the diagram above we see a pictorial of how the patellar tendon reflex works. What is C?
We discussed a number of reflexes that are used to establish motor control. Which statement below is false in regard to these reflexes.
Reflexes are processed in the brain
An example of the ___ reflex is when a person steps on a nail, the leg that is stepping on the nail pulls away, while the other leg takes the weight of the whole body. This reflex is contralateral, meaning the reflex occurs on the opposite side of the body from the stimulus.
How do we perceive equilibrium and balance when our heads tilts?
If motor skills are classified according to the stability of the environment, bowling would be placed in the category of
Mountain biking, which requires the performer to continually adapt to his or her responses to confirm to the trail, would be considered what kind of skill?
An open skill
Shifting from second to third gear in a car is an example of __ motor skill
Understanding skill complexity and being able to classify skills enables the practitioner to
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT true of learning?
It is directly observable
Which of the following is NOT true of motor skills
They can be performed involuntarily
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill?
Typing on a laptop keyboard
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