ANT 185 Final Exam

Spencer Wells
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American geneticist whose book The Journey of Man explains how genetic data has been used to trace human migrations over the past 50,000 years, when modern humans first migrated outside of Africa. He believes we originated from a small tribe in Africa and our differences are due to melanin/lack of sunscreen at the time. Wells concluded the Y chromosome, the male sex-determining chromosome proposes that all humans alive today are descended from a single man.
original affluent societyTrobriand Islandsincest taboo(s)Kalaharihow to read a kinship chartEGO- you; triangle=male, circle= female; equal sign means marriageunilinealdescent is recognized through only one line or side of the familyendogamythe practice of marrying within one's own groupMead's "firsts"Ketelelonon-kin networksFamily of orientation/originthe family in which a person grows upbridewealthpayments made to the bride's family by the groom's family before marriageRedistributionexogamywhen someone is expected to marry outside their particular groupbalanced reciprocitynegative reciprocitycore-peripheryformalismsexfictive kinDerek FreemanFranz BoasSamoaN!aiclana group of people who have a general notion of common descent that is not attached to a specific biological ancestor (i.e. navajos born for father's families but born to their mother's families, the clan to which they belong primarily)Eskimo systemkinship reckoning that most Americans follow (comes from the Inuit) in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as a lineal systemHawaiian systemkinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term. (mother/father, brother/sister, or "child")Sudanese/Descriptive system-every kinship term on the chart is different -each has their own special namePatrilinealrelating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the fatherphonemesmallest unit of sound!Kungbilateral kinshipa system in which individuals trace their descent through both parentscross cousinsthe children of a person's parents' opposite-gender siblings (a father's sister's children or a mother's brother's children).parallel cousinsthe children of a person's parents' same-gender siblings (a father's brother's children or a mother's sister's children).anthropological "veto"Holmes's Samoa restudyCommodity FetishismKitsisoKitsiso hitches the branches to mules to haul it home. His lifestyle is the same one his forefathers lived. They milk goats and farm the land. The soil is everything to them. So they protect it to pass down to their children. His dad wants him to live and grow old in the bush. But it's place has with no toilets, no sinks — nothing. At night, he sits beside the grass, brushing his teeth. At the end of the film he leaves and tells his dad that it is time for him to find a new life.Type vs. Tokennuclear familya parent or parents who are in a culturally-recognized, such as marriage, along with minor or dependent childrenfamily of procreationa new household formed for the purpose of conceiving and raising childrenmarket exchangecolonialismgeneralized reciprocityNeoliberalismEconomics and MigrationSubstantivismGendersocial structure (the art of being human)most of what we take as "reality" is a cultural construction- "realized" through our unseen, unexamined assumptions of what is right, true, or possiblemarriage with no love (kenya)customary system, Esther's father has 3 wives & 26 children; polygamousmarriage in india-parents generally need to approve of (sometimes choose) the spouses of their children -arranged marriage -socio-economic status, occupation, and religion play large roles in choosingavunculocalmarried individuals live with or near an unclekinshipterm used to describe culturally recognized ties between members of a family, the social statuses used to define family members, and the expected behaviors associated with these statuses.kinship terminologythe terms used in a language to describe relativestypes of kinship systems1. Eskimo 2. Hawaiian 3. Sudanese/Descriptive 4. Omaha 5. Crow 6. IroquoisKin Type vs. Kin Termkin types are based on biological relationships while kin terms are social and what they CALL people