Forward chaining-When a behavior is taught in "logical" or chronological order, and each step of the behavior is reinforced.
Step 1: Angela gets the pink toothbrush from her cup and the toothpaste from the top vanity drawer.
Step 2: When she mastered this step, she will unscrew the cap, she will wet the bristles and put the paste on the bristles.
Step 3:When she has mastered opening the toothpaste and squirting it on the brush, the child needs to open his, her mouth wide and begin to brush the top teeth.
Step 4: Rinsing the toothpaste out, front and back. This step will have to be modeled: there is no way to hand over hand this skill
Step 5: Replace the toothpaste cap, put the cap, brush and rinsing cup away.
Backward chaining-breaking the skill down into smaller steps, then teaching and reinforcing the last step in the sequence first, then the second to the last step, and so on.
Example: Steps for putting on a t-shirt
Step 1: Lay the t-shirt front side down on the bed/floor/table with the lower edge nearest to your child
Step 2: Pick the back of the t-short up and place it over your head
Step 3: Push one arm through the sleeve
Step 4: Push the other arm through the sleeve
Step 5: Pull the t-shirt down
3rd EditionC. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers 6th EditionSpencer A. Rathus 10th EditionElliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Timothy D. Wilson