ap human geography - all terms

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agricultural densitythe total number of farmers per unit of arable land.agricultural hearthan area where different groups began to domesticate plants and animalsagricultural landscapea landscape resulting from the interactions between farming activities and a location's natural environmentagriculturethe purposeful cultivation of plants or raising of animals to produce goods for survivalagroecosysteman ecosystem modified for agricultural useantecedent boundarya border established before an area becomes heavily settledantinatalistdescribing attitudes or policies that discourage childbearing as a means of limiting population growthaquifierlayers of sand, gravel, and rocks that contain and can release a usable amount of water.arable landland that can be used to grow cropsarithmetic densitythe total number of people per unit area of land; also called crude densityartifacta visible object or technology that a culture createsassimilationa category of acculturation in which the interaction of two cultures results in one culture adopting almost all of the customs, traditions, language, and other cultural traits of the otherasylumthe right to protection in a countryautonomoushaving the authority to govern territories independently of the national governmentbid-rent theorya theory that describes the relationships between land value, commercial location, and transportation (primarily in urban areas) using a bid-rent gradient, or slope; used to describe how land costs are determinedbiodiversitythe variety of organisms living in a locationbiotechnologythe science of altering living organisms, often through genetic manipulation, to create new products for specific purposes, such as crops that resist certain pestsblockbustinga practice by real estate agents who would stir up concern that Black families would soon move into a neighborhood; the agents would convince White property owners to sell their houses at below-market prices.boomburba suburb that has grown rapidly into a large and sprawling city with more than 100,000 residentsbrain drainthe loss of trained or educated people to the lure of work in another, often richer, countrybreak of bulk pointlocation where it is more economical to break raw materials into smaller units before shipping them fartherbrownfieldabandoned and polluted industrial site in central city or suburbBuddhismthe oldest universalizing religion, which arose from a hearth in northeaster India sometime between the mid-sixth century and mid-fourth century BCE and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Guatama, called the Buddha.bulk-gaining industyindustry in which the finished goods cost more to transport than the raw materialsbulk-reducing industryindustry in which the raw materials cost more to transport than the finished goodscarrying capacitythe maximum population size an environment can sustaincarographera person who creates mapscash cropa crop produced mainly to be sold and usually exported to larger marketscensusan official count of the number of people in a defined areacentral business district (CBD)the central location where the majority of consumer services are located in a city or town because the accessibility of the location attracts these servicescentral place theorya theory used to describe the spatial relationship between cities and their surrounding communitiescentrifugal forcea force that divides a group of peoplecentripetal forcea force that unites a group of peoplechain migrationtype of migration in which people move to a location because other from their community have previously migrated there.choke pointa narrow, strategic passageway to another place through which it is difficult to passChristianitya universalizing religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ that began in what is now the West Bank and Israel around the beginning of the common era that has been spread to all continentscircular migrationa migration pattern in which migrant workers move back and forth between their country of origin and the destination country where they work temporary jobscirculationtemporary repetitive movements that recur on a regular basisclimatethe long-term patterns of weather in a particular areaclimate regionan area that has similar climate patterns generally based on its latitude and its location on a coast or continental interiorclustered settlementa rural settlement pattern in which residents live in close proximity to one another, with farmland and pasture land surrounding the settlement; also known as nucleated settlementcollectivist culturea culture in which people are expected to conform to collective responsibility within the family and to be obedient and respectful of elder family memberscolonialismthe practice of claiming and dominating overseas territoriesColumbian Exchangethe exchange and ideas between the Americas, Europe, and Africa that began after Christopher Columbus landed in the Americascommercial agriculturean agricultural practice that focuses on producing crops and raising animals for the market for others to purchasecommodity chaina network of people, information, processes, and resources that work together to produce, handle, and distribute a commodity or productcommodity dependencean aspect of dependency theory that occurs when more than sixty percent of a country's exports and economic health are tied to one or two resourcescomparitive advantagethe relative cost advantage a country or organization has to produce certain goods or services for tradeconcentric-zone modela model of urban development depicting a city growing outward from a CBD in a series of concentric ringsconcurrentsharing authorityconsequent boundarya type of subsequent boundary that takes into account the differences that exist within a cultural landscape, separating groups that have distinct religions, languages, ethnicities, or other traits.contagious diffusionthe process by which an idea or cultural trait spreads rapidly among people of all social classes and levels of powercoreclassification of a country or region that has wealth, higher education levels, more advanced technologies, many resources, strong militaries, powerful allies.cottage industrypreindustrial form of manufacture in which members of families spread out through rural areas worked in their homes to make goodscreolizationthe blending of two or more languages that may not include the features of either original languagecrop rotationthe varying of crops from year to year to allow for the restoration of valuable nutrients and the continuing productivity of the soil.crude birth rate (CBR)the number of births in a given year per 1,000 people in a given populationcrude death rate (CDR)the number of deaths in a given year per 1,000 people in a given populationcultural appropriationthe act of adopting elements of another culturecultural convergencethe process by which cultures become more similar through interactioncultural divergencen. the process by which cultures become less similar due to conflicting beliefs or other barriers (page 190)cultural hearthan area where cultural traits develop and from which cultural traits diffusecultural landscapea natural landscape that has been modified by humans, reflecting their cultural beliefs and valuescultural norma shared standard or pattern that guides the behavior of a group of people (page 155)cultural relativismthe evaluation of a culture by its own standards (page 155)cultural traita shared object or cultural practiceculturethe beliefs, values, practices ,behaviors, and technologies shared by a society and passed down from generation to generationdebt-for-nature swapagreement between a bank and a peripheral country in which the bank forgives a portion of the country's debt in exchange for local investment in conservation measuresde facto segregationsegregation that results from residential settlement patterns rather than from prejudicial lawsdefiningto explicitly state in legally binding documentation such as a treaty where boundaries are located, using reference points such as natural features or lines of latitude and longitudedeforestationloss of forest landsdeindustrializationprocess by which a country or area reduces industrial activity, particularly in heavy industry and manufacturingdelimitto draw boundaries on a map, in accordance with a legal agreementdemarcateto place physical objects such as stones, pillars, walls, or fences to indicate where a boundary existsdemographicsdata about the structures and characteristics of human populationsdemographic transition model (DTM)A model that represents shifts in the growth of the world's populations, based on population trends related to birth rate and death ratedenominationseparate church organization that unites a number of local congregationsdensitythe number of things-people, animals, or objects -in a specific areadependency ratiothe number of people in a dependent age group (under age 15 or age 65 and older) divided by the number of people in the working-age group (ages 15 to 64), multiplied by 100dependency theorya theory that describes the development challenges and limitations faced by poorer countries and the political and economic relationships poorer countries have with richer countriesdesertificationa form of land degradation that occurs when soil deteriorates to a desertlike conditiondevolutionthe process that occurs when the central power in a state is broken up among regional authorities within its bordersdialecta variation of a standard language specific to a general area, with differences in pronunciation, degree of rapidity in speech, word choice, and spellingdiffusionthe process by which a cultural trait spreads from one place to another over timedisamenity zonea high-poverty urban area in a disadvantaged location containing steep slopes, flood-prone ground, rail lines, landfills, or industrydispersedspread outdispersed settlementa rural settlement pattern in which houses and buildings are isolated from one another, and all the homes in a settlement are distributed over a relatively large areadistance decaya principle stating that the farther away one thing is from another, the less interaction the two things will havedistributeto arrange within a given spacedomesticationthe deliberate effort to grow plants and raise animals, making plants and animals adapt to human demands and using selective breeding to develop desirable characteristicsdoubling timethe number of years in which a population growing at a certain rate would doubledual agricultural economyan economy having two agricultural sectors that have different levels of technology and different patterns of demanddual economieseconomies with two distinct distributions of economic activity across the economic sectorsecological footprintimpact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain the use of natural resourcesecological perspectivethe relationships between living things and their environmentseconomic sectorscollections of industries engaged in similar economic activities based on the creation of raw materials, the production of goods, the provision of services, or other activitieseconomies of scalecost reductions that occur when production risesecotourisma form of tourism based on the enjoyment of natural areas that minimizes the impact to the environmentedge citya type of community located on the outskirts of a larger city with commercial centers with office space, retail complexes, and other amenities typical of an urban centerelectoral collegea set of people, called electors, who are chosen to elect the president and vice president of the United Statesemigrationmovement away from a locationeminent domaina government's right to take over privately owned property for public use or interestenclosure systemsystem in which communal lands were replaced by farms owned by individuals, and use of the land was restricted to the owner or tenants who rented the land from the ownerenvironmental determinismthe idea that human behavior is strongly affected, controlled, or determined by the physical environmentenvironmental injusticethe ways in which communities of color and poor people are more likely to be exposed to environmental burdens such as air pollution or contaminated water; also called environmental racismepidemiological transition model (ETM)a model that describes changes in fertility, mortality, life expectancy, and population age distribution, largely as the result of changes in causes of deathethnic cleansingthe process by which a state attacks an ethnic group and tries to eliminate it through expulsion, imprisonment, or killingethnicitythe state belonging to a group of people who share common cultural characteristicsethnic neighborhooda cultural landscape within a community of people outside of their area of originethnic religiona religion that is closely tied with a particular ethnic group often living in a particular placeethnic separatismthe process by which people of a particular ethnicity in a multinational state identify more strongly as members of their ethnic group than as citizens of the stateethnocentrismthe tendency of ethnic groups to evaluate other groups according to preconceived ideas originating from their own cultureethnonationalismthe process by which the people of a country identify as having one common ethnicity, religious belief, and language, creating a sense of pride and identity that is tied to the territory; also called ethnic nationalismexclusive economic zone (EEZ)an area that extends 200 nautical miles from a state's coast; a state has sole access to resources found within the waters or beneath the sea floor of its EEZexpansion diffusionthe spread of a cultural trait outward from where it originatedexport processing zone (EPZ)an area within a country that is subject to more favorable regulations (usually including the elimination of tariffs) to encourage foreign investment and the manufacturing of goods for exportextensive agriculturean agricultural practice with relatively few inputs and little investment in labor and capital that results in relatively low outputsexurba typically fast-growing community outside of or on the edge of a metropolitan area where the residents and community are closely connected to the central city and suburbsfair tradea movement that tries to provide farmers and workers in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries with a fair price for their products by providing more equitable trading conditionsfarm subsidya form of aid and insurance given by the federal government to certain farmers and agribusinessesfederal statethe organization of a state in which power is shared between the federal government and its internal regional unitsFertile Crescenta hearth in Southwest Asia that forms an arc from the eastern Mediterranean coast up into what is now western Turkey and then south and east along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to western parts of modern Iranfertilitythe ability to produce childrenfilteringthe process of neighborhood change in which housing vacated by more affluent groups passes down the income scale to lower-income groupsFirst agricultural revolutionthe shift from foraging for food to farming about 11,000 years ago, marking the beginning of agricultureflowmovement of people, goods, or information that has economic, social, political, or cultural effects on societiesfood desertarea where residents lack access to healthy, nutritious foods because stores selling these foods are too far awayfood insecuritythe disruption of food intake or eating patterns because of poor access to foodfood securityreliable access to safe and nutritious food that can support an active and healthy lifestyleforagerssmall, nomadic groups who had primarily plant-based diets and ate small animals or fish for proteinforced migrationtype of migration in which people are compelled to move by economic, political, environmental, or cultural factorsFordisma highly organized and specialized system for industrial production that focuses on efficiency and productivity in mass production; named after Henry Fordformal regionan area that has one or more shared traits; also called a uniform regionformal sectorbusinesses, enterprises and other economic activities that have government supervision, monitoring, and protection, and are also taxedfree trade zone (FTZ)a relatively large geographical area within a country in which businesses pay few or no tariffs on goods to encourage or facilitate its role in international tradefriction of distancea concept that states that the longer a journey is, the more time, effort, and cost it will involve (pages 10, 115)functional regionan area organized by its function around a focal point, or the center of an interest or activitygalactic city modela model of urban development depicting a city where economic activity has moved from the central business district toward loose coalitions of other urban areas and suburbs; also known as the peripheral modelGender Development Index (GDI)a measure that calculates gender disparity in the three basic dimensions of human development: health, knowledge, and standard of livinggendered spacea space designed and deliberately incorporated into the landscape to accommodate gender rolesgender identityan individual's innermost concept of self as male, female, a blend of both, or neitherGender Inequality Index (GIl)a measure that calculates inequality based on three categories: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor-market participation (page 527)genetically modified organism (GMO). A plant or animal with specific characteristics obtained through the manipulation of its genetic makeupgentrificationthe renovations and improvements conforming to middle-class preferencesgeographic information system (GIS)a computer system that allows for the collection, organization, and display of geographic data for analysisgeometric boundarya mathematically drawn boundary that typically follows lines of latitude and longitude or is a straight-line arc between two pointsgerrymanderingthe drawing of legislative boundaries to give one political party an advantage in electionsglobalizationthe expansion of economic, cultural, and political processes on a worldwide scaleglobal positioning system (GPS). a network of satellites that orbit Earth and transmit location data to receivers, enabling users to pinpoint their exact locationglobal supply chaina network of people, information, processes, and resources that work together to produce, handle, and distribute goods around the worldgravity modela model that predicts the interaction between two or more places; geographers derived the model from Newton's law of universal gravitationgreenbelta ring of parkland, agricultural land, or other type of open space maintained around an urban area to limit sprawlGreen Revolutionmovement beginning in the 1950s and 1960s in which scientists used knowledge of genetics to develop new high-yield strains of grain cropsGross Domestic Product (GDP)the total value of the goods and services produced by a country's citizens and companies within the country in a year (Gross National Income (GNI)the total value of goods and services globally produced by a country in a year divided by the country's populationGross National Product (GNP)the total value of the goods and services produced by a country's citizens and companies both domestically and internationally in a yeargrowth polea place of economic activity clustered around one or more high-growth industries that stimulate economic gain by capitalizing on some special assetguest workera migrant who travels to a new country as temporary laborhierarchical diffusionthe spread of an idea or trait from a person or place of power or authority to other people or placesHinduisman ethnic religion that arose a few thousand years ago in South Asia and is closely tied to Indiahuman developmentthe processes involved in the improvement of people's freedoms, rights, capabilities, choices, and material conditionsHuman Development Index (HDI)a measure that determines the overall development of a country by incorporating three key dimensions of human development: life expectancy at birth, access to education measured in expected and mean years of schooling, and standard of living measured by GNI per capitahuman geographythe study of the processes that have shaped how humans understand, use, and alter Earthhuman migration. the permanent movement of people from one place to anotherhuman traffickingdefined by the United Nations as "the recruitment, transportation, harboring, or receipt of persons by improper means (such as force, abduction, fraud, or coercion)" (hybridthe product created by breeding different varieties of species to enhance the most favorable characteristics (page 339)identitythe ways in which humans make sense of themselves and how they wish to be viewed by othersimmigrationmovement to a locationimperialismthe push to create an empire by exercising force or influence to control other nations or peoples (page 247)inclusionary zoning lawlaw that creates affordable housing by offering incentives for developers to set aside a minimum percentage of new housing construction to be allocated for low-income renters or buyersindustrializationthe process in which the interaction of social and economic factors causes the development of industries on a wide scaleisolatea language that is unrelated to any other known language (page 202)industrial parka collection of manufacturing facilities in a particular area that is typically found in suburbs and is located close to highways to facilitate movement of raw materials and finished products (page 517)Industrial Revolutionthe radical change in manufacturing methods that began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century and was marked by the shift from small-scale, hand-crafted, muscle-powered production to power-driven mass production (page 495)industryany economic activity using machinery on a large scale to process raw materials into productsinfant mortality rate (IMR). the number of deaths of children under the age of 1 per 1,000 live birthsinfillredevelopment that identifies and develops vacant parcels of land within previously built areasinformal sectorany part of a country's economy that is outside of government monitoring or regulation; sometimes called the informal economyinfrastructurethe many systems and facilities that a country needs in order to function properlyintensive agriculturean agricultural practice in which farmers expend a great deal of effort to produce as much yield as possible from an area of landinternally displaced personperson who has been forced to flee his or her home but remains within the country's bordersinternal migrationmovement within a country's bordersinternational division of labor. a pattern of production and labor in which different countries are engaged in distinct aspects of productioninterregional migrationmovement from one region of the country to anotherintervening obstaclean occurrence that holds migrants backintervening opportunityan occurrence that causes migrants to pause their journey by choiceintraregional migration. movement within one region of the country (page 128)irredentism. attempts by a state to acquire territories in neighboring states inhabited by people of the same nationIslama universalizing religion based on the teachings of Muhammad that originated in the hearth of Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh centuryland degradationlong-term damage to the soil's ability to support life (page 103)Judaismthe world's first monotheistic religion, which developed among the Hebrew people of Southwest Asia about 4,000 years agojust-in-time deliverya system in which goods are delivered as needed so that companies keep in inventory only what is needed for near-term productionkinship linksnetworks of relatives and friendslabor-market participation (LMP)Rate that measures an economy's active labor force, calculated by taking the sum of all employed workers divided by the working age population (page 529)raw materials. any metals, wood or other plant products, animal products, or other substances that are used to make intermediate or finished goods (landformsthe natural features of Earth's surfaceland tenurethe legal rights, as defined by a society, associated with owning landlanguagea distinct system of communication that is the carrier of human thoughts and cultural identitieslanguage branch. a collection of languages within a language family that share a common origin and separated from other branches in the same family several thousand years ago (page 202)language familya group of languages that share a common ancestral language from a particular hearth, or region of originlanguage grouplanguages within a language branch that share a common ancestor in the relatively recent past and have vocabularies with a high degree of overlapLatin American city modela model of urban development depicting a city with a central business district, concentric rings, and sections stricken by poverty; also known as the Griffin-Ford modelleast-cost theoryindustrial location theory proposed by Alfred Weber suggesting that businesses locate their facilities in a particular place because that location minimizes the costs of productionlife expectancythe average number of years a person is expected to livelinear settlementa rural settlement pattern in which houses and buildings form in a long line that usually follows a land feature or aligns along a transportation routelingua francacommon language used among speakers of different languageslocationthe position that a point or object occupies on Earthmajority-minority districtan electoral district in which the majority of voters are members of an ethnic or racial minoritymap scalethe relationship of the size of the map to the size of the area it represents on Earth's surfacemarket gardeninga type of farming that produces fruits, vegetables, and flowers and typically serves a specific market or urban areaMediterranean agriculturean agricultural practice that consists of growing hardy trees and shrubs and raising sheep and goatsmegacitya city with a population of more than 10 millionmental mapsinternalized representations of portions of Earth's surfacementifacta central, enduring element of a culture that reflects its shared ideas, values, knowledge, and beliefsmetacitya city with a population of more than 20 millionmetropolitan areaa city and the surrounding areas that are influenced economically and culturally by the city (microloana very small short-term loan with low interest intended to help people in needmixed crop and livestock systemsa type of farming in which both crops and livestock are raised for profitmixed-use development (MUD)a single planned development designed to include multiple uses, such as residential, retail, educational, recreational, industrial, and office spacesmixed-use zoningzoning that permits multiple land uses in the same space or structuremobilityall types of movement from one location to another, whether temporary or permanent or over short or long distancesmodela representation of reality that presents significant features or relationships in a generalized formmonocroppingthe cultivation of one or two crops that are rotated seasonallymonoculturethe agricultural system of planting one crop or raising one type of animal annuallymortalitydeaths as a component of population changemulticulturalisma situation in which different cultures live together without assimilatingmultinational statea country with various ethnicities and cultures living inside its bordersmultiple-nuclei model. a model of urban development depicting a city where growth occurs around the progressive integration of multiple nodes, not around one central business districtmultiplier effectthe economic effect in which a change creates a larger change, such as when a new manufacturing plant grows the economy by giving rise to more related jobs and servicesmultistate nationpeople who share a cultural or ethnic background but live in more than one countrynationa cultural entity made up of people who have forged a cornmon identity through a shared language, religion, heritage, or ethnicity - often all four of thesenation-statea politically organized and recognized territory composed of a group of people who consider themselves to be a nation (neocolonialismthe use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependenciesneoliberalismbeliefs that favor free-market capitalism in which trade has no constraints from governmentNeo-Malthusian. describing the theory related to the idea that population growth is unsustainable and that the future population cannot be supported by Earth's resourcesnet migrationthe difference between the number of emigrants and immigrants in a location, such as a city or a countryNew Urbanism, a school of thought that promotes designing growth to limit the amount of urban sprawl and preserve nature and usable farmlandnodethe focal point of a functional regionnomadic herdinga type of agriculture based on people moving their domesticated animals seasonally or as needed to allow the best grazingoffshore outsourcingthe condition when one or more aspects of production moves to an organization in another countryoverpopulationa term used to describe the condition in which population growth outstrips the resources needed to support lifepatternthe way in which things are arranged in a particular spaceperceptual region. a type of region that reflects people's feelings and attitudes about a place; also called a vernacular regionperipheryclassification of a country or region that has less wealth, lower education levels, and less sophisticated technologies and also tends to have an unstable government and poor healthcare systemsphysical geographythe study of natural processes and the distribution of features in the environment, such as landforms, plants, animals, soil, and climatephysiological densitythe total number of people per unit of arable landpilgrimagea journey to a holy place for spiritual reasonsplacea location on Earth that is distinguished by its physical and human characteristicsplacemakinga community-driven process in which people collaborate to create a place where they can live, work, play, and learnplantation agriculture. a type of large-scale commercial farming of one particular crop grown for markets often distant from the plantationpolitical geographythe study of the ways in which the world is organized as a reflection of the power different groups hold over territorypopular culturethe widespread behaviors, beliefs, and practices of ordinary people in society at a given point in time (population densitythe number of people occupying a unit of land (population distributionwhere people live in a geographic areapopulation pyramida graph that shows the age-sex distribution of a given populationpossibilismtheory of human-environment interaction that states that humans have the ability to adapt the physical environment to their needspost-Fordismsystem focused on small-scale batch production for a specialized market and flexibility that allows for a quick response to changes in the marketpostindustrial economyan economic pattern marked by predominant tertiary sector employment -with a good share of quaternary and quinary jobs (page 506)postmodern architecturea building style that emerged as a reaction to "modern" designs, and values diversity in designprecision agriculturea farming management concept that uses technology to apply inputs with pinpoint accuracy to specific parts of fields to maximize crop yields, reduce waste, and preserve the environmentprimary sectoreconomic sector associated with removing or harvesting products from the earth; includes agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining or quarrying, and extracting liquids or gasprimate cityhe largest city in a country, which far exceeds the next city in population size and importancepronatalistdescribing attitudes or policies that encourage childbearing as a means of spurring population growthqualitativeinvolving data that is descriptive of a research subject and is often based on people's opinionsquantitative. involving data that can be measured by numbersquaternary sectoreconomic sector that is a subset of tertiary sector activities that requires workers to process and handle information and environmental technologyquinary sectoreconomic sector that is a subset of the quaternary sector; involves the very top leaders in government, science, universities, nonprofits, health care, culture, and mediaquotalimit on the number of immigrants allowed into the country each yearrangein central place theory, the distance that someone is willing to travel for a good or servicerank-size ruleexplanation of size of cities within a country; states that the second- largest city will be one-half the size of the largest, the third largest will be one-third the size of the largest, and so onrate of natural increase (RNI)rate at which a population grows as the result of the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death ratereapportionmentthe redistribution of representative seats among states based on shifts in populationredistrictingthe redrawing of internal territorial and political boundariesreference mapa map that focuses on the location of placesrefugeea person who is forced to leave his or her country for fear of persecution or death (page 118)regionan area of Earth's surface with certain characteristics that make it cohesive yet distinct from other areasregional planningplanning conducted at a regional scale that seeks to coordinate the development of housing, transportation, urban infrastructure, and economic activitiesrelative directiondirection based on a person's perception, such as left, right, up, or down (relative locationa description of where a place is in relation to other places or featuresrelicformer boundary that no longer has an official functionreligiona system of spiritual beliefs that helps form cultural perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and values (relocation diffusionthe spread of culture traits through the movement of peopleremittancemoney earned by an emigrant abroad and sent back to his or her home countryremote sensingcollecting or analyzing data from a location without making physical contactrepatriateto return to one's home countryreservoirartificial lake used to store watersafe spacea space of acceptance for people who are sometimes marginalized by societysalinizationthe process by which water- soluble salts build up in the soil, which limits the ability of crops to absorb waterscalethe area of the world being studiedsecond agricultural revolutiona change in farming practices, marked by new tools and techniques, that diffused from Britain and the Low Countries starting in the early 18th centurysecondary sectoreconomic sector associated with the production of goods from raw materials; includes manufacturing, processing, and constructionsecta relatively small group that has separated from an established religious denomination (page 171)sector modela model of urban development depicting a city with wedge-shaped sectors and divisions emanating from the central business district, generally along transit routessecularizedfocused on worldly rather than spiritual concerns (self-determinationthe right of all people to choose their own political statussemiautonomousdescribing a region that is given partial authority to govern its territories independently from the national government (semi-peripheryclassification of a country or region that has qualities of both core and peripheral areas and is often in the process of industrializingsense of placethe subjective feelings and memories people associate with a geographic location (page 168)sequent occupance. the notion that successive societies leave behind their cultural imprint, a collection of evidence about human character and experiences within a geographic region, which shapes the cultural landscape (page 158)sex ratiothe proportion of males to females in a population (page 75)shatterbelta region where states form, join, and break up because of ongoing, sometimes violent, conflicts among parties and because they are caught between the interests of more powerful outside states (page 246)shifting cultivationthe agricultural practice of growing crops or grazing animals on a piece of land for a year or two, then abandoning that land when the nutrients have been depleted from the soil and moving to a new piece of land where the process is repeated (page 318)Sikhismthe newest universalizing religion; founded by Guru Nanak, who lived from 1469 to 1539, in the Punjab region of northwestern India (page 222)site. a place's absolute location, as well as its physical characteristics, such as the landforms, climate, and resourcessituationocation of a place in relation to other places or its surrounding featuresskills gapa shortage of people trained in a particular industrYslash and burna method of agriculture in which existing vegetation is cut down and burned off before new seeds are sown; often used when clearing landslow-growth citycity where planners have used smart-growth policies to decrease the rate at which the city grows outwardsmart-growth policypolicy implemented to create sustainable communities by placing development in convenient locations and designing it to be more efficient and environmentally responsiblesociofacta structure or organization of a culture that influences social behaviorSoutheast Asian city modela model of urban development depicting a city oriented around a port and lacking a formal central business district, growing outward in concentric rings and along multiple nodesSovereigntythe right of a government to control and defend its territory and determine what happens within its bordersspacethe area between two or more thingsspatial perspectivegeographic perspective that focuses on how people live on Earth, how they organize themselves, and why the events of human societies occur where they dospecial economic zone (SEZ)an area within a country that offers more favorable economic regulations (such as tax benefits or no tariffs) to attract foreign businessessquatter settlementan informal housing area beset with overcrowding and poverty that features temporary homes often made of wood scraps or metal sheetingstages of economic growtha model that suggests that all countries can be categorized on a spectrum from traditional to modern and that to become modern, countries need to pass through distinct stages of economic growth in succession (page 540)statea politically organized independent territory with a government, defined borders, and a permanent population; a country (page 241)stateless nationa people united by culture, language, history, and tradition but not possessing a statestep migration. series of smaller moves to get to the ultimate destinationstimulus diffusionthe process by which a cultural trait or idea spreads to another culture or region but is modified to adapt to the new culture (page 182)subsequent boundarya border drawn in an area that has been settled and where cultural landscapes exist or are in the process of being established (page 254)subsistence agriculturean agricultural practice that provides crops or livestock to feed one's family and close community using fewer mechanical resources and more people to care for the crops and livestocksuburbanizationthe shifting of population away from cities into surrounding suburbssuburbs. less densely populated residential and commercial areas surrounding a citysuperimposed boundarya border drawn over existing accepted borders by an outside or conquering force (page 254)supranational organizationan alliance of three or more states that work together in pursuit of common goals or to address an issue or challenge (page 283)sustainabilitythe use of Earth's land and natural resources in ways that ensure they will continue to be available in the future (page 10)sustainable developmentdevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needssyncretismprocess of innovation combining different cultural features into something new (page 195)tariffa tax or duty to be paid on a particular import or exporttemperate climateclimate with moderate temperatures and adequate precipitation amounts (page 64)terracingthe process of carving parts or a hill or mountainside into small, level growing plotsterritorialitythe attempt to influence or control people and events by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area; the connection of people, their culture, and their economic systems to the landtertiary sectoreconomic sector that includes a host of activities that involve the transport, storage, marketing, and selling of goods or services: also called the service sectorthematic mapany map that focuses on one or more variables to show a relationship between geographic datatheorya system of ideas intended to explain certain phenomenathird agricultural revolution. a shift to further mechanization in agriculture through the development of new technology and advances that began in the early 20th century and continues to the present day (third placea communal space that is separate from home (first place) or work (second place)thresholdin central place theory, the number of people needed to support a businesstime-space compressiona key geographic principle that describes the ways in which modern transportation and communication technology have allowed humans to travel and communicate over long distances more quickly and easily (page 10)topographythe representation of Earth's surface to show natural and human-made features, especially their relative positions and elevationstoponyma place name (page 161) total fertility rate (TFR) n. the average number of children one woman in a given country or region will have during her childbearing years (ages 15 to 49)traditional architecturean established building style of different cultures, religions, and placestraditional culturethe long-established behaviors, beliefs, and practices passed down from generation to generation (traditional zoningzoning that creates separate zones based on land-use type or economic function such as various categories of residential (low-, medium-, or high-density), commercial, or industrialtranshumancethe movement of herds between pastures at cooler, higher elevations during the summer months and lower elevations during the wintertransnational migrationinternational migration in which people retain strong cultural, emotional, and financial ties with their countries of origintransportation-oriented developmentthe creation of dense, walkable, pedestrian- oriented, mixed-use communities centered around or located near a transit stationunitary stalean organization of a state in which power is concentrated in a central government (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)the international agreement that established the structure of maritime boundaries (page 256)universalizing religiona religion that tries to appeal to all humans and is open to membership by everyoneurban areaa city and its surrounding suburbsurban growth boundarya boundary that separates urban land uses from rural land uses by limiting how far a city can expandurbanizationurban growth and developmenturban renewalthe natonwide movement that developed in the 1950s and 1960s when U.S. cities were given massive federal grants to tear down and clear out crumbling neighborhoods and former industrial zones as a means of rebuilding their downtownsurban sprawlareas of poorly planned, low-density development surrounding a Cityvernacular regiona type of region that reflects people's feelings and attitudes about a place; also called a perceptual regionvertical integrationthe combining of a company's ownership of and control over more than one stage of the production process of goods (page 344)voluntary migrationtype of migration in which people make the choice to move to a new placeVon Thünen Model. a model that suggests that perishability of the product and transport costs to the market each factor into the location of agricultural land use and activitywalkabilitya measure of how safe, convenient, and efficient it is to walk in an urban environmentwetlandarea of land that is covered by water or saturated with waterwomen's empowermentwomen's options and access to participate fully in the social and economic spheres of a societyworld citya city that wields political, cultural, and economic influence on a global scaleworld system theorytheory describing the spatial and functional relationships between countries in the world economy; categorizes countries as part of a hierarchy consisting of the core, periphery, and semi-peripheryzone of abandonment. area that has been largely deserted due to lack of jobs, declines in land value, and falling demandzoningthe process of dividing a city or urban area into zones within which only certain land uses are permitted