Spencer Wells
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American geneticist whose book The Journey of Man explains how genetic data has been used to trace human migrations over the past 50,000 years, when modern humans first migrated outside of Africa. He believes we originated from a small tribe in Africa and our differences are due to melanin/lack of sunscreen at the time. Wells concluded the Y chromosome, the male sex-determining chromosome proposes that all humans alive today are descended from a single man.
matrilineal descentrelating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother (i.e. Among the Hopi, mother's brother more important than a father through ceremonial obligations)original affluent societyTerm coined by the scholar Marshall Sahlins in 1972 to describe Paleolithic societies, which he regarded as affluent not because they had so much but because they wanted or needed so little.Trobriand Islandsislands off the east coast of New Guineaincest taboo(s)prohibitions on sexual relations between relativesKalahariA desert in southwestern Africa - largely Botswanahow to read a kinship chartEGO- you; triangle=male, circle= female; equal sign means marriageunilinealdescent is recognized through only one line or side of the familyendogamythe practice of marrying within one's own groupMead's "firsts"-Her first stop was in Pago Pago, for 6 weeks of language instruction. -Lived in Ta'u village with an American family. Had easy access to about 50 Samoan girls and young women. 8 to 20. -Did participant/observation and interviews -Used a schoolhouse for more formal psychological testing (Color naming tests, memory tests, mathematics tests, picture interpretation, etc) -Local chief spoke english and took her under his wing.Ketelelowas 21 when filmmaking on "A House Without Snakes" began. An orphan who grew up with his grandmother, he excelled in the school system in New Xade, the village where the San were relocated to. He received a scholarship to attend his last two years of school in Botswana's capital city. He eventually received a scholarship to attend college at Michigan State University, where he is currently studying engineering.non-kin networksFamily of orientation/originthe family in which a person grows upbridewealthpayments made to the bride's family by the groom's family before marriageRedistributiona form of exchange in which accumulated wealth is collected from the members of the group and reallocated in a different patternexogamywhen someone is expected to marry outside their particular groupbalanced reciprocitya mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their deliverynegative reciprocityexchange conducted for the purpose of material advantage and the desire to get something for nothingcore-peripheryA model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.formalismexcessive adherence to prescribed formssexthe biological distinction between females and malesfictive kinclose relations with people we consider "like family" but who are not related to us by blood or marriageDerek Freemana New Zealand anthropologist known for his criticism of Margaret Mead's work on Samoan society; argued she was hoaxed into counterfactually believing that Samoan culture had more relaxed norms than Western cultureFranz BoasSamoaPacific island that became a triple protectorate of the United States, Britain, and GermanyN!aiShe was the woman from the !Kung bushmen film. She gave an overview of what her life was like as a young woman in the !Kung clan. She really shows the individual over the culture. While in other documentaries we tend to just look at the culture and not the individuals.clana group of people who have a general notion of common descent that is not attached to a specific biological ancestor (i.e. navajos born for father's families but born to their mother's families, the clan to which they belong primarily)Eskimo systemkinship reckoning that most Americans follow (comes from the Inuit) in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as a lineal systemHawaiian systemkinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term. (mother/father, brother/sister, or "child")Sudanese/Descriptive system-every kinship term on the chart is different -each has their own special namePatrilinealrelating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the fatherphonemesmallest unit of sound!KungSociety of Hunters/Gatherers that were forced onto reservations after their land got taken away.bilateral kinshipa system in which individuals trace their descent through both parentscross cousinsthe children of a person's parents' opposite-gender siblings (a father's sister's children or a mother's brother's children).parallel cousinsthe children of a person's parents' same-gender siblings (a father's brother's children or a mother's sister's children).anthropological "veto"the idea that if you do enough anthropological research, you can always find somebody or some culture that doesn't fit your description of "human nature"; what's normal in one culture, is alien in anotherHolmes's Samoa restudyCommodity Fetishism (Marx)social relationships involved in production, not as relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and commodities/things exchanged in our market. - confusing the commodity with the person. ex: Rolex vs. Walmart watch.. what impresses you more? how does that affect how you view that person?KitsisoKitsiso hitches the branches to mules to haul it home. His lifestyle is the same one his forefathers lived. They milk goats and farm the land. The soil is everything to them. So they protect it to pass down to their children. His dad wants him to live and grow old in the bush. But it's place has with no toilets, no sinks — nothing. At night, he sits beside the grass, brushing his teeth. At the end of the film he leaves and tells his dad that it is time for him to find a new life.Type vs. TokenTypes are groups, while tokens are individual things that fall under such groupsnuclear familya parent or parents who are in a culturally-recognized, such as marriage, along with minor or dependent childrenfamily of procreationa new household formed for the purpose of conceiving and raising childrenmarket exchangean economic system in which goods and services are bought and sold at a money price determined primarily by the forces of supply and demandcolonialismthe policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.generalized reciprocitygiving and receiving goods with no immediate or specific return expectedNeoliberalismA strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.Economics and Migrationsubstantivismthe idea that human-economic relationships are embedded in, rather than separate from, the range of other social relationships that existgenderthe socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and femalesocial structure (the art of being human)most of what we take as "reality" is a cultural construction- "realized" through our unseen, unexamined assumptions of what is right, true, or possiblemarriage with no love (kenya)customary system, Esther's father has 3 wives & 26 children; polygamousmarriage in india-parents generally need to approve of (sometimes choose) the spouses of their children -arranged marriage -socio-economic status, occupation, and religion play large roles in choosingavunculocalmarried individuals live with or near an unclekinshipterm used to describe culturally recognized ties between members of a family, the social statuses used to define family members, and the expected behaviors associated with these statuses.kinship terminologythe terms used in a language to describe relativestypes of kinship systems1. Eskimo 2. Hawaiian 3. Sudanese/Descriptive 4. Omaha 5. Crow 6. IroquoisKin Type vs. Kin Termkin types are based on biological relationships while kin terms are social and what they CALL people