Digestive System

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Functions of the digestive system
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Terms in this set (45)
parotid glandsalivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the earsubmandibular glandFound on both sides, just under and deep to the lower jaw (towards the back of the mouth). Produces roughly 70% of the saliva in our mouth.sublingual glandsalivary gland under the tonguelingual frenulumanchors tongue to floor of mouthuvulasmall projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palateEsophagusA muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.Peristalisiswaves of muscular contraction that help push food through your digestive systemesophageal sphinctervalve that separates esophagus from stomachstomachA muscular and elastic sac that serves mainly to store food, break it up mechanically, and begin chemical digestion of proteins (with pepsin) and fat.fundus of stomachThe top portion of the stomach which allows excess undigested food to be stored after a large meal; has no acid producing cellslesser curvatureconcave medial border of the stomachgreater curvatureconvex lateral surface of the stomachrugaeseries of ridges produced by the folding of the wall of the stomach Function:allow the stomach to expand when neededpyloric sphincterring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenumgoblet cellsA columnar-shaped cell (found in the digestive tract) which secretes mucus to protect delicate tissues from powerful enzymes and acids used in digestion.DeodenumThe first part of the small intestine. The duodenum helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. Secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder all empty into this area. Emulsification and breakdown of fats happens here.liverLargest organ of the body. -Produces bile. -Blood detoxification and purification -Metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. -Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. -Synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, and clotting factors.GallbladderStores bile produced by the liver.PancreasRegulates blood sugar levels. Conducts digestive and endocrine function.insulinA protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues; decreases blood sugar levelglucagonA protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin.jejunumThe part of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum. The most nutrient absorption happens here.ileumThe last and longest portion of the small intestine. Vitamins A, D, E, and K, fats, and cholesterol are absorbed in the lower third of the ileum. Vitamin B12 is absorbed just before the small intestine joins the large intestine.ileocecal valveValve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine; prevents waste from the large intestine from re-entering the small intestine.cecumA pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines.appendixA small, fingerlike extension of the cecum; believed to be a storage location for healthy bacteria.large intestineAbsorbs water and forms fecesascending colonthe part of the large intestine that ascends from the cecum to the transverse colontransverse colonthe middle part of the large intestine, passing across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach.descending colontravels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colonsigmoid colonAn S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum belowRectumA short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminatedanusA muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the bodymesenterystructure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wallgreater omentuma fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera