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passive transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

concertration gradient

the difference in concentration of a substance across space.


the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration


diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Hypertonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis

hypotonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis

isotonic solution

a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis

Ion channel

a transport protein with a polar pore through which ions can pass

carrier protein

a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane

Facilitated diffusion

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

sodium-potassium pump

a carrier protein that actively transports K+ ions into and Na+ ions out of cells


the movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle


process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell

receptor protein

a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond

Second messenger

acts as a signal molecule in the cytoplasm

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