Upgrade to remove ads
APUSH Chapter 20
Terms in this set (30)
"Waving the bloody shirt"
A term of ridicule used in the 1880s and 1890s to refer to politicians- especially Republicans- who, according to critics, whipped up old animosities from the Civil War era that ought to be set aside.
A term in the 1920s describing the late nineteenth century as a period of ostentatious displays of wealth, growing poverty, and government inaction in the face of income inequality. Followed by a "Progressive Era".
1883 law establishing a nonpartisan Civil Service Commission to fill federal jobs by examination. The Pendleton Act dealt a major blow to the "spoils system" and sought to ensure that government positions were filled by trained, professional employees.
A late-nineteenth century branch of reform-minded Republicans who left their party in 1884 to support Democratic presidential candidate Grover Cleveland. Many were classical liberals who denounced corruption and advocated a reduction in government powers and civil service reform.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Landmark 1890 act that forbade anti-competitive business activities, requiring the federal government to investigate trusts and any companies operating in violation of the act.
Also known as the Federal Elections Bill of 1890, a bill proposing that whenever 100 citizens in any district appealed for intervention, a bipartisan federal board could investigate and seat the rightful winner. The defeat of the bill was a blow to those seeking to defend African American voting rights and to ensure full participation in politics.
1892 statement by the Populists calling for stronger government to protect ordinary Americans.
A policy of loosening the money supply by expanding federal coinage to include silver as well as gold. Advocates to the policy thought it would encourage borrowing and stimulate industry, but the defeat of Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan ended the "free silver" movement and gave Republicans power to retain the gold standard.
Williams v. Mississippi
1898 Supreme Court ruling that allowed states to impose poll taxes and literacy tests. By 1908, every southern state had adopted such measures.
The post Reconstruction goal- achieved by the early twentieth century- of almost complete electoral control of the South by the Democratic Party.
Lochner v. New York
A 1905 Supreme Court ruling that New York State could not limit bakers' workday to ten hours because that violated bakers' rights to make contracts.
Newlands Reclamation Act
1902 law, supported by President Theodore Roosevelt, that allowed the federal government to sell public lands to raise money for irrigation projects that expanded agriculture on arid lands.
A policy promoted by Republican governor Robert La Follette of Wisconsin for greater government interaction in the economy, with reliance on experts, particularly progressive economists, for policy recommendation.
Pioneering progressive idea, enacted in Wisconsin, Oregon, California, and other states that gave citizens the right to remove unpopular politicians from office through a vote.
The process of voting directly on a proposed policy measure rather than leaving it in the hands of elected legislators' a progressive reform.
National Child Labor Committe
A reform organization that worked (unsuccessfully) to win a federal law banning child labor. The NCLC hired photographer Lewis Hine to record brutal conditions in mines and mills where thousands of children worked.
Muller v. Oregon
A 1908 Supreme Court case that upheld and Oregon law limiting women's workday to ten hours, based on the need to protect women's health for motherhood. Muller complicated the earlier decision in Lochner v. New York, laying out grounds on which states could intervene to protect workers. It divided women's rights activists, however, because some saw it's provisions as discriminatory.
Term used by Harvard-educated sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois for the top 10 percent of educated African Americans, whom he called on to develop new strategies to advocate for civil rights.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
An organization founded in 1910 by leading African American reformers and white allies as a vehicle for advocating equal rights for African Americans, especially through the courts.
Industrial Workers of the World
An umbrella union and radical political group founded in 1905 dedicated to organizing unskilled workers to oppose capitalism. Nicknamed the Wobblies, it advocated direct action by workers, including sabotage and general strikes.
In a 1910 speech, Theodore Roosevelt called for a "New Nationalism" that promoted government intervention to enhance public welfare, including a federal child labor law, more recognition of labor rights, a national minimum wage for women, women's suffrage, and curbs on the power of federal courts to stop reform.
Federal Reserve Act
The central bank system of the U.S. created in 1913. The Federal Reserve helps set the money supply level, thus influencing the rate of growth in the U.S. economy, and seeks to ensure the stability of the U.S. monetary system.
Clayton Antitrust Act
A 1914 law that strengthened federal definitions of "monopoly" and gave more power to the Justice Department to pursue antitrust cases; it also specified that labor unions could not generally be prosecuted for "restraint of trade", ensuring that antitrust laws would apply to corporations rather than unions.
Mary E. Lease
Well known during the early 1890's for her actions as a speaker for the populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.
William Jennings Bryan
Leader of the Democrats in the Chicago convention of 1896 who was a supporter of free silver and won his audiences with biblical fervor; jobless workers and bankrupt farmers resulted in Bryan's assault on the gold standard striking fear in many hearts.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War.
Robert La Follette
Member of the House, senator and Governor of the state of Wisconsin, he brought about many democratic reforms in the state's politics, including the nomination of candidates by direct vote and the regulation of railroad rates. He also introduced the idea of direct appeal to the electorate on questions of policy, called the referendum.
A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs. Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Born in Mass. in 1868, known for being the first black graduate from Harvard, born a free man and co-founded the NAACP.
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
apush chapter 18 vocab
Chapter 24 APUSH
apush chapter 22 vocab
APUSH Chapter 26 Vocab
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 20 Terms
America's History 8th Edition, Ch 20 Key Terms & P…
APUSH Chapter 20: Whose Government? Politics, Popu…
America's History Chapter 20
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Amor, Musica, y Poesia
El Zorro que se Hizo El Muerto
Cajas de Carton