At. Med. Unit 4: Struggle for Ideas (Sci Rev & Enlightenment)

Nicolaus Copernicus
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Isaac Newtoncame up with the basis for modern calculus and discovered the law of gravitygravityforces that pulls objects in Earth's sphere to the center of the Earthnatural lawsunchanging principles, discovered through reason that govern all human conductenlightenmentAge of ReasonThomas Hobbeswrote Leviathan and argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy and selfish; believed people had to enter into a social contract with the government"Leviathan"book written by Thomas Hobbes saying that people were naturally cruel rather than goodsocial contractan agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaosJohn Lockebelieved people were basically reasonable and moral; people had natural rights; wrote Two Treatises of Governmentnatural rightsrights that belonged to all humans from birth; ex. life, liberty and property"Two Treatises of Government"written by John Locke, where Locke argued that people form governments to protect their natural rightsphilosophesFrench thinkers who desired reform in society during the EnlightenmentBaron de Montesquieubelieved the best way to protect liberty was to dived the various functions and powers of government among three branches- executive, legislative, and judicial; wrote "The Spirit of the Laws"; thought each branch should check themselvesVoltairetargeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats; discussed inequality, injustice and superstition; defended the principle of free speechDenis Diderotcreated the "Encyclopedia" where he explained topics on government, philosophy and religion"Encyclopedia"written by Diderot; 28-volume of books denouncing slavery, praising freedom of expression and promoting education for all; caused upheaval in the French governmentJean-Jacques Rousseaubelieved people were naturally good and then people were corrupted by the evils of society, especially with the unequal distribution of property; wrote "The Social Contract""The Social Contract"The idea that government is the result of an agreement among people to give up rights in a society for the social benefit of others.Mary Wollenstonecraftargued that women were being excluded from the social contract; wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"; promoted education for all"A Vindication of the Rights of Women"written by Wollstonecraft calling for equal education for boys and girlslaissez faireallowing the operations in society to have little to no government controlAdam Smitheconomist supporting a free enterprise/market systemfree marketnatural forces of supply and demand should be allowed to operate and regulate businesssalonsinformal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes and others exchanged ideas

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