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Terms in this set (162)

Primary (or unconditioned) aversive stimuli- The cessation or prevention of which is reinforcing, regardless of prior learning (i.e., negative reinforcement) Example: nourishment for a food-deprived individual, liquids for the fluid-deprived, warmth for one who is chilled, sexual satisfaction for a lustful youth.

Secondary or learned (conditioned) reinforcer- an initially natural stimulus which has acquired reinforcing properties for the individual's behavior because of its relation to, or association with, strong primary or secondary reinforcers. Example: A teacher telling a child she is good girl for doing her class work will not be likely to act as a reinforcer if the child has never learned the words "good girl" accompany good things (such as food and comfort).

Generalized reinforcer- is learned reinforcer that has become effective for a wide range of behaviors under a variety of circumstances or settings. Example: gaining social recognition, money, tokens

Social reinforcer-any reinforcing event such as recognition, compliments ("What a good boy!"), or peer approval that are mediated by other people. Example: smiles, tickles, high fives, praise

Edible reinforcers-are consumable items, like milk and snacks
Examples: candy, cookies, crackers

Tangible reinforcers- are objects such as gloves, gold stars, bonuses, and trophies
Examples: edibles, toys, balloons, stickers.

Activity reinforcers- are individuals' preferred pastimes, such as working at the computer, spending time at the activity table, or baking bread.
Example: baking, cooking, video games

Socially-mediated- as in family members paying attention to a child sucking his thumb,
Example: a baby cries and receives milk from the parent.

Automatic reinforcers-The reinforcement is inherent in the response itself (i.e., thumb sucking, twirling hair, masturbation, or rocking back and forth may produce a reinforcing sensation for the client). Example: twirling hair, sucking thumb, rocking, Masturbation, eating food.

Functional reinforcer- The reinforcer is currently maintaining or reinforcing a behavior. Example:

Arbitrary reinforcers-are reinforcers or preferred stimuli that can function as reinforcers but may not be currently functioning in that way.
Example: edible reinforcement and the use of token economies
- Allows for a high number of training trials
- Easy for many different staff members to implement (a scripted curriculum is used)
-May be a good way to develop tact, receptive, echoic, and imitative behavior
-Easier to run in a classroom setting
- Instructional stimuli and detailed curriculum provided for staff
-Instructional stimuli and detailed curriculum
-Contrived consequence is easy to deliver
-Data collection is relatively straightforward
-Progressive steps in the curriculum clearly identified (e.g., nouns, verbs, pronouns)
-Progress (or the lack of progress) is very observable
-May help to establish stimulus control of "learner repertories" (e.g., child learns to attend, learns that if he does respond he gets reinforced, learns how to make discriminations, learns to sit and work, acquires an increased tolerance of demands)

-Use of the child's interest (EOs) to guide language instruction
-Best conditions to teach manding
-Use of stimuli in the child's natural environment as target stimuli
-Reduced need for elaborate generalization procedures
-Reduced amount of negative behavior

-Reduced need for aversive control

-Easier to teach intraverbal behavior as a separate verbal operant

-The verbal interaction is much more characteristic of typical verbal interactions

-More opportunities for trainers to be paired with successful verbal interactions

-Verbal responses can be mixed together more easily under the environmental conditions that may evoke them later

-The training conditions are closer to those of kindergarten and how child may be taught in the future.
-Requires special procedure to ensure generalization
-Prompts to respond (including aversive prompts) often not present outside of the training session
-Child's current EOs not used in training and may even compete with training
-Mainly teacher-initiated activities
-Mand training is difficult because it requires using EOs and specific reinforcement
-Intraverbal behavior typically not taught as a separate verbal operant
-Immediate and powerful reinforcers often not available outside of the training session
-The drill nature of the training may generate rote responding
-Non-functional nature of the training may generate escape and avoidance behaviors (possibly increasing the need for the use aversive control or powerful contrived reinforcers)
-The interaction between the speaker and listener is very different from that observed by typical speakers and listeners
-Language and language trainers may become paired with aversive situations
-Trials that are presented in a scripted manner reduce the trainer's ability to expand on responses or mix up the verbal operants, as in typical verbal interactions q

- Training is difficult to conduct in a formal classroom
- Must be able to capture or contrive on-going EOs
-Child's EO may be unknown to the trainer
-Cumbersome to always follow the child's EO
-Cumbersome to always deliver specific reinforcement
-May be difficult to eliminate to role of the EO as a source of control
-Requires better training on the part of staff
-Curriculum is not scripted so it is more difficult to know what to do
-Data collection (measures of acquisition) is much more complicated
-Substantially reduced number of training trials
-Training may compete with the establishment of other types of stimulus control