Primary (or unconditioned) aversive stimuli- The cessation or prevention of which is reinforcing, regardless of prior learning (i.e., negative reinforcement) Example: nourishment for a food-deprived individual, liquids for the fluid-deprived, warmth for one who is chilled, sexual satisfaction for a lustful youth.
Secondary or learned (conditioned) reinforcer- an initially natural stimulus which has acquired reinforcing properties for the individual's behavior because of its relation to, or association with, strong primary or secondary reinforcers. Example: A teacher telling a child she is good girl for doing her class work will not be likely to act as a reinforcer if the child has never learned the words "good girl" accompany good things (such as food and comfort).
Generalized reinforcer- is learned reinforcer that has become effective for a wide range of behaviors under a variety of circumstances or settings. Example: gaining social recognition, money, tokens
Social reinforcer-any reinforcing event such as recognition, compliments ("What a good boy!"), or peer approval that are mediated by other people. Example: smiles, tickles, high fives, praise
Edible reinforcers-are consumable items, like milk and snacks
Examples: candy, cookies, crackers
Tangible reinforcers- are objects such as gloves, gold stars, bonuses, and trophies
Examples: edibles, toys, balloons, stickers.
Activity reinforcers- are individuals' preferred pastimes, such as working at the computer, spending time at the activity table, or baking bread.
Example: baking, cooking, video games
Socially-mediated- as in family members paying attention to a child sucking his thumb,
Example: a baby cries and receives milk from the parent.
Automatic reinforcers-The reinforcement is inherent in the response itself (i.e., thumb sucking, twirling hair, masturbation, or rocking back and forth may produce a reinforcing sensation for the client). Example: twirling hair, sucking thumb, rocking, Masturbation, eating food.
Functional reinforcer- The reinforcer is currently maintaining or reinforcing a behavior. Example:
Arbitrary reinforcers-are reinforcers or preferred stimuli that can function as reinforcers but may not be currently functioning in that way.
Example: edible reinforcement and the use of token economies
- Allows for a high number of training trials
- Easy for many different staff members to implement (a scripted curriculum is used)
-May be a good way to develop tact, receptive, echoic, and imitative behavior
-Easier to run in a classroom setting
- Instructional stimuli and detailed curriculum provided for staff
-Instructional stimuli and detailed curriculum
-Contrived consequence is easy to deliver
-Data collection is relatively straightforward
-Progressive steps in the curriculum clearly identified (e.g., nouns, verbs, pronouns)
-Progress (or the lack of progress) is very observable
-May help to establish stimulus control of "learner repertories" (e.g., child learns to attend, learns that if he does respond he gets reinforced, learns how to make discriminations, learns to sit and work, acquires an increased tolerance of demands)
-Use of the child's interest (EOs) to guide language instruction
-Best conditions to teach manding
-Use of stimuli in the child's natural environment as target stimuli
-Reduced need for elaborate generalization procedures
-Reduced amount of negative behavior
-Reduced need for aversive control
-Easier to teach intraverbal behavior as a separate verbal operant
-The verbal interaction is much more characteristic of typical verbal interactions
-More opportunities for trainers to be paired with successful verbal interactions
-Verbal responses can be mixed together more easily under the environmental conditions that may evoke them later
-The training conditions are closer to those of kindergarten and how child may be taught in the future.
a. designed to reduce deviant behavior by prompting and reinforcing substitute alternative constructional behaviors.
b. They usually prevent and/or reduce problematic behavior, are less likely to provoke violence, escape, and aggression or to lower the recipients' views of themselves, of those delivering the contingencies, and of associated tasks. Are more likely to emphasize teaching how to behave than how to not behave. Are more likely to elevate the person's general level of reinforcement, resulting in more prosocial behavior.
c. When based on a behavior's function and applied appropriately, positive (non-punitive) antecedent and consequential behavior interventions:
- Usually prevent and/or reduce problematic behavior as effectively as punitive procedures, while being less restrictive and intrusive.
-Are less likely to provoke violence, escape, and aggression or to lower the recipients' views of themselves, of those delivering the contingencies, and of associated tasks.
- are more likely to emphasize teaching how to behave than how not to behave
-Are more likely to elevate the person's general level of reinforcement, resulting in more prosocial behavior.
a. Making requests known to promote high rates of compliance in advance of the activity less likely to be performed.
b. This strategy has been shown to decrease defiance, noncompliance, transition problems, and other escape-motivated behaviors as well to increase a number of socially-appropriate behaviors including social interactions. We believe that using high-probability requests promotes momentum, thereby setting up a condition for compliance as a general response class. If the low-probability request has aversive properties, then frequently augmenting reinforcers may reduce its aversiveness and increase compliance.
c. Example: Tania delivers several easy requests she is quite certain Bert will respond to rapidly- wash the board, carry out the waste-basket, feed the fish, draw a picture, and write the alphabet (High-probability request sequence) and complete his arithmetic problems (i.e., low probability request; something he is capable doing, but rarely does on request).
13th EditionMichael R Solomon 6th EditionSpencer A. Rathus 3rd EditionC. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers 10th EditionElliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Timothy D. Wilson