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168 terms

biology test 1

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covalent bond
atoms sharing a pair of electrons. Ex: H2O
hydrogen bond
attraction of partial charges. Ex: H2O with other ionic particles and they also hold the base pairs in DNA together
polar molecules
attract each other and do not attract nonpolar molecules
nonpolar
have no charge and nonpolar molecules attract each other
what are the four macromolecule
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and they all contain carbon
monomer
the small subunit molecule which make the molecule a chain
dimer
2 monomers put together in a chain
polymer
many links of monomers
hydrolysis
reaction breaking apart a polymer, it puts water and and a monomer falls out
dehydration
the monomer takes place of a water molecule to add on a link of monomer to a chain
enzyme
are need for building up or breaking down (dehydration and hydrolysis). Catalysts for reactions in the body and are reusable.
carbohydrate
fuel for making ATP. Ex: Glucose (C6H12O6)
monosaccharide
a monomer of carbohydrate
disaccharide
2 monomers of carbohydrates, occurs when dehydration occurs, disaccharides are used for quick energy
polysaccharide
a chain of carbohydrates, include strach, glycogen and cellulose
cellulose
structural polysaccharide which plants use to make cell walls which helps them stand up and hold water
glycogen
polysaccharide, storage for animals which is found in our liver and muscle cells
startch
polysaccharide used for storage of energy in plants. Ex: potatoes are starch pouches
chitin
polysaccharide that is used for structure and is found in animals that have strong exoskeletons. Ex: insects
glucose
C6H12O6 monosaccharide and is fule for ATP
amino acid
monomer and when added together form a polypeptide/protein
protein
one or more polypeptide chain
polypeptide
chain of amino acids and 1 or more can make proteins
peptide bond
bond between two amino acids
hydrophobic
something that is soluble in water and is attracted to water
hydrophilic
nonpolar and is not soluble in water
denaturation
unfolding of enzyme which can be caused by high or low pH or temperature
conformation
refolding an unfolded enzyme
lipid
not soluble in water and are hydrophobic they are used for growth, utilization of some vitamins, insulation, excellent energy source, major component of cell membranes
triglyceride
have 3 carbon backbone system with a hydrocarbon tail and can be called fatty acids, store lots of energy
phospholipid
have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail creates a phospholipid bilayer which is the cell membrane
amphipathic
means a molecule is hydrophobic and hydrophilic
sterol
steroids, hormones and can be membrane structures such as cholesterol
lipoprotein
a layer of proteins that surround cholesterol and it moves cholesterol through the blood stream
saturated (fat)
have no double bonds this is found in animal fats and solid at room temperature. saturated fatty acids are straight which allows them to be a solid at room temperature
unsaturated (fat)
found in plant fats and has a double bond that occurs this kinks the fatty acid making them liquid at room temperature
transmembrane protein
goes through the entire phospholipid bilayer
peripheral membrane
a protein that sticks to the outside of the membrane
glycoprotein
protein with an oligosaccharide attached to it and this helps the cell be identified by other cells
concentration gradient
being high on the gradient means that a solution is very concentrated; in simple diffusion solutions go from high concentration to low concentration
passive transportations are:
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis and they require no energy
active transport
require energy to move solutions across the cell wall
facilitated diffusion
movement is still down the concentration gradient and their is no energy needed. proteins in the cell wall helps this happen
carrier protein
transport polar molecules like sugars and amino acids, this transport is slower than a channel transport
channel protein
allow polar molecules to go through and some channels are gated and they open and close in response to specific signals
osmosis
passive transport of water through the cell membrane
aquaporin
water channels that create osmosis by facilitated diffusion usually because these cells need more water
hypotonic
the solution that has less of a solute dissolved in it; a hypotonic cell gains water from its surroundings
hypertonic
solution that has a lot of solute dissolved in it; a hypertonic cell loses water to its surroundings
isotonic
both solutions are equal in water
ATP
Used in active transport by hydrolysis which breaks off the last phosphate group giving the active transport the energy it needs
pump
movement against concentration gradient, when a phosphate from ATP attaches to the pump the pump changes shape allowing it to move molecules from one side to the other. Ex: sodium/potassium pump
endocytosis
a substance being brought into the cell
exocytosis
a substance being delivered outside of the cell
vesicle
membrane bound sac and is used in vesicular transport
pinocytosis
type of endocytosis, it is like the cell is drinking; non-selective transport of dissolved molecules
phagocytosis
taking in a large amount of molecules; like cell eating; it is non-selective and creates food vesicle
receptor-mediated endocytosis
very selective, the receptors are usually on the inside of a pit and it is called a coated vesicle b/c it has a specific destination
LDL
low density lipoprotein and it is the "bad cholesterol" it builds up in your blood vessels; HDL which is good cholesterol can get rid of LDL
Coated pit
receptors are in pit and is used in receptor-mediated endocytosis
prokaryote
have no nucleus and have different shaped ribosomes and all bacteria are all prokaryotes, have no organelles
eukaryote
bigger single cell then prokaryotes that has a nucleus and have organelles
chromosome
totally packed DNA with proteins surrounding it
chromatin
DNA coiled around histones
DNA
Dioxyribonucleic acid, base pairs are AGC and T, sugar is deoxyribose, has an OH group at #3 carbon spot of the pentose sugar, has two strands
plasmid
small circular DNA sometimes contains genes for antibiotic resistance
nucleiod region
in prokaryotes, region where the cell's DNA is located
flagellum
locomotion organelles of some bacteria
Ribosome
made up of two subunits mad of ribosomal RNA and proteins; can be free in cytosol or bound to ER and is used to make DNA
extremophile
organism that live in extreme conditions
plasma membrane
is a phospholipid bilayer that separates the outside of the cell from the inside
organelle
compartments in a Eukaryotic cell that perform different functions for the cell
nucleus
hold the DNA
cytoplasm
the area inside of the cell where organelles are
endomembrane system
regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
there is smooth ER and rough ER and the rough ER has ribosomes on it. the Smooth ER helps lipid production
transport vesicle
bring proteins to the golgi apparatus from the ER
golgi apparatus
modifies proteins further, sorts proteins and ships them
lysosome
breaks down substances in he cytoplasm like damaged organelles, marcomolecules and other substances
peroxisome
create H2O2 to break down poisons and then they break down H2O2 into water
mitochondria
make ATP for the cell and they have their own DNA
chloroplast
it does photosynthesis
photosynthesis
gives the plant cells its energy from the sun
cytoskeleton
network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
intermediate filament
fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables they maintain cell shape and are used in anchoring organelles and form lamina in the nucleus, it cannot build up or break down
microfilament
are made of actin subunits and help with cell shape, muscle contraction, cell division and can build up and break down
microtubule
made of tubulin proteins, can build up and break down, used for chromosome movement and vesicle transport
motor protein
"walk" across the microtubles transporting vesicles, use ATP to walk
model organism
non-human organism that researchers can manipulate, with expectation that we can learn from them and apply it to humans
nucleotide
nitrogenous base with a phosphate group and pentose sugar group, create DNA
nucleic acid
made up of nucleotides and is DNA and RNA
RNA
Base pairs are AGC and U, sugar is ribose, has an OH group at #3 carbon spot of the pentose sugar and there is only 1 strand
double helix
shape that DNA is in, looks like a stair case
DNA antiparallel
the 2 DNA stands run in opposite direction which means that one run from 5' to 3' and the other side runs from 3' to 5'
5'
is the end of the nucleic acid that has the phosphate group
3'
is the end of the nucleic acid that has the carbon group and has an OH group on it
complementary base pair
A-T, G-C
base-pairing
complementary base pairing
replication
starts by separating the strands and each strand serves as a template which makes 2 daughter molecules
template strand
one half of the DNA that is unzipped
origin of replication
part on the DNA that starts the replication process, has to be high in As and Ts so they are easier to split apart which is where the bubble forms
replication bubble
where the replication of DNA starts and it separates into 2 replication forks
replication fork
where DNA polymerase III and the Ozazaki fragments being
helicase
unwinds the DNA and separates the the strands by breaking down the H bond
topoisomerase
ahead of helicase, it relieves supercoiling that is caused by the helicase unwinding the double helix
single-stranded binding proteins
bind to the single strand of DNA and keeps the strand unpaired
DNA polymerase
will build complementary base pair, it needs a 3' OH
ligase
connects all the pieces together
primase
adds a primer
primer
short piece of single-stranded RNA that is complementary to the DNA template and replication starts here
leading strand
built in the 5' to 3' direction it is continuous synthesis from the DNA polymerase III building the new DNA strand
lagging strand
strand that is synthesized from the fork towards the bubble and is synthesized in fragments
continuous synthesis
the continuous building of DNA by DNA polymerase III
discontinuous synthesis
fragments of DNA being build from the fork towards the bubble and is not sythesized continuously
okazaki fragment
beginning fragments from the fork towards the bubble
nuclease
enzyme that cuts nucleic acids and it cuts the distorted nuceic acids
telomere
at the end of DNA and it gets cut off and it is a repetition of TTAGGG
telomerase
rebuilds telomere in stem cells and germ cells
transcription
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
translation
mRNA to polypeptide, getting from nucleic acid language to protein language
gene
a segment of DNA that contains instructions for building a polypeptide
promoter
Where RNA polymerase attached "upstream" of start point
RNA polymerase
unwinds DNA, Adds nucleotides complementary to template strand, RNA strand built in 5' to 3' direction, no need for helicase, no need for primer
mRNA
is after transcription, uses a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein
codon
three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
tRNA
transfer RNA, an RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA
anticodon
a nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
genetic code
codon makes a certain amino acid
rRNA
makes up part of the ribosome
polyA tail
tail at 3' end that stabilizes RNA molecule and the longer tail means it has a longer life
introns
noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed
exons
coding that is expressed and is left in during RNA processing
splicing
necessary for movement of RNA from nucleus to cytosol and it happens in the nucleus in the spliceosome
spliceosome
made up of small nuclear RNA and small nuclear ribonuclear proteins (snRNP)
signal peptide
a sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell
mutation
change in an organism's DNA
missense mutation
change in amino acid and the consequence can be non to server
nonsense mutation
introduction of a stop codon really bad mutation
stop codon
tells replication to stop and everything after it is not translated. consequence is a truncated (shortened) protein.
reading frame
area that is being replicated
frameshift mutation
the point of new/deleted base pair the rest of the DNA codons are different
insertion
the adding of a nucleotide pair causes a frameshift
deletion
losing a nucleotide pair, causes a frameshift
chaperone
are proteins that assist the non-covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures
ubiquitin
tag put on proteins to be destroyed
protesome
one pathway to protein destruction
prion
an infectious agent that is a misfolded version of a normal cellular protein. Prions appear to increase in in number by converting correctly folded versions of the protein to more prions
spongiform encephalopathy
caused by mutated prions and makes the brain sponge like
structure of amino acid
Carbon at the center bonded with a hydrogen, bonded with an amino group (NH2), Carboxyl Group (CO2H) and a R group which differs between amino acids
amino acids that are soluble in water have ____ molecules
NH, OH or SH
primary structure of polypeptides
linked series of amino acids with unique sequence
secondary structure of polypeptides
localized folding created by H bonding and the amino groups and carboxy groups do the hydrogen bonding
alpha helix
folding that occurs in secondary structure of polypeptide and it folds the polypeptide in a helical shape
beta pleated sheet
folding that occurs in secondary structure of polypeptides and it folds the polypeptide over itself
tertiary structure of polypeptides
three dimensional shaping of polypeptide and it occurs because of the interaction between R groups and hydrogen bonds and ionic bonding is very important for R group bonding
quatemary structure
the order and putting together of two or more polypeptides
halophiles
salt loving organism
methanogens
live in O2 free places
thermophiles
live in extremely hot areas
C of base pairing
Cytosine
T of base pairing
thymine
U of base pairing
uracil
A of base pairing
adenine
G of base pairing
guanine
DNA polymerase I
removes RNA primers and it fills in the gap with DNA nucleotides
base pair substitution
replacement of nucleotide pair with another and include: missense, silent mutation, nonsense mutation
insertion/deletion
additions or losses of nucleotide pair(s), change the reading frame of a DNA sequence