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covalent bond

atoms sharing a pair of electrons. Ex: H2O

hydrogen bond

attraction of partial charges. Ex: H2O with other ionic particles and they also hold the base pairs in DNA together

polar molecules

attract each other and do not attract nonpolar molecules


have no charge and nonpolar molecules attract each other

what are the four macromolecule

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and they all contain carbon


the small subunit molecule which make the molecule a chain


2 monomers put together in a chain


many links of monomers


reaction breaking apart a polymer, it puts water and and a monomer falls out


the monomer takes place of a water molecule to add on a link of monomer to a chain


are need for building up or breaking down (dehydration and hydrolysis). Catalysts for reactions in the body and are reusable.


fuel for making ATP. Ex: Glucose (C6H12O6)


a monomer of carbohydrate


2 monomers of carbohydrates, occurs when dehydration occurs, disaccharides are used for quick energy


a chain of carbohydrates, include strach, glycogen and cellulose


structural polysaccharide which plants use to make cell walls which helps them stand up and hold water


polysaccharide, storage for animals which is found in our liver and muscle cells


polysaccharide used for storage of energy in plants. Ex: potatoes are starch pouches


polysaccharide that is used for structure and is found in animals that have strong exoskeletons. Ex: insects


C6H12O6 monosaccharide and is fule for ATP

amino acid

monomer and when added together form a polypeptide/protein


one or more polypeptide chain


chain of amino acids and 1 or more can make proteins

peptide bond

bond between two amino acids


something that is soluble in water and is attracted to water


nonpolar and is not soluble in water


unfolding of enzyme which can be caused by high or low pH or temperature


refolding an unfolded enzyme


not soluble in water and are hydrophobic they are used for growth, utilization of some vitamins, insulation, excellent energy source, major component of cell membranes


have 3 carbon backbone system with a hydrocarbon tail and can be called fatty acids, store lots of energy


have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail creates a phospholipid bilayer which is the cell membrane


means a molecule is hydrophobic and hydrophilic


steroids, hormones and can be membrane structures such as cholesterol


a layer of proteins that surround cholesterol and it moves cholesterol through the blood stream

saturated (fat)

have no double bonds this is found in animal fats and solid at room temperature. saturated fatty acids are straight which allows them to be a solid at room temperature

unsaturated (fat)

found in plant fats and has a double bond that occurs this kinks the fatty acid making them liquid at room temperature

transmembrane protein

goes through the entire phospholipid bilayer

peripheral membrane

a protein that sticks to the outside of the membrane


protein with an oligosaccharide attached to it and this helps the cell be identified by other cells

concentration gradient

being high on the gradient means that a solution is very concentrated; in simple diffusion solutions go from high concentration to low concentration

passive transportations are:

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis and they require no energy

active transport

require energy to move solutions across the cell wall

facilitated diffusion

movement is still down the concentration gradient and their is no energy needed. proteins in the cell wall helps this happen

carrier protein

transport polar molecules like sugars and amino acids, this transport is slower than a channel transport

channel protein

allow polar molecules to go through and some channels are gated and they open and close in response to specific signals


passive transport of water through the cell membrane


water channels that create osmosis by facilitated diffusion usually because these cells need more water


the solution that has less of a solute dissolved in it; a hypotonic cell gains water from its surroundings


solution that has a lot of solute dissolved in it; a hypertonic cell loses water to its surroundings


both solutions are equal in water


Used in active transport by hydrolysis which breaks off the last phosphate group giving the active transport the energy it needs


movement against concentration gradient, when a phosphate from ATP attaches to the pump the pump changes shape allowing it to move molecules from one side to the other. Ex: sodium/potassium pump


a substance being brought into the cell


a substance being delivered outside of the cell


membrane bound sac and is used in vesicular transport


type of endocytosis, it is like the cell is drinking; non-selective transport of dissolved molecules


taking in a large amount of molecules; like cell eating; it is non-selective and creates food vesicle

receptor-mediated endocytosis

very selective, the receptors are usually on the inside of a pit and it is called a coated vesicle b/c it has a specific destination


low density lipoprotein and it is the "bad cholesterol" it builds up in your blood vessels; HDL which is good cholesterol can get rid of LDL

Coated pit

receptors are in pit and is used in receptor-mediated endocytosis


have no nucleus and have different shaped ribosomes and all bacteria are all prokaryotes, have no organelles


bigger single cell then prokaryotes that has a nucleus and have organelles


totally packed DNA with proteins surrounding it


DNA coiled around histones


Dioxyribonucleic acid, base pairs are AGC and T, sugar is deoxyribose, has an OH group at #3 carbon spot of the pentose sugar, has two strands


small circular DNA sometimes contains genes for antibiotic resistance

nucleiod region

in prokaryotes, region where the cell's DNA is located


locomotion organelles of some bacteria


made up of two subunits mad of ribosomal RNA and proteins; can be free in cytosol or bound to ER and is used to make DNA


organism that live in extreme conditions

plasma membrane

is a phospholipid bilayer that separates the outside of the cell from the inside


compartments in a Eukaryotic cell that perform different functions for the cell


hold the DNA


the area inside of the cell where organelles are

endomembrane system

regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

there is smooth ER and rough ER and the rough ER has ribosomes on it. the Smooth ER helps lipid production

transport vesicle

bring proteins to the golgi apparatus from the ER

golgi apparatus

modifies proteins further, sorts proteins and ships them


breaks down substances in he cytoplasm like damaged organelles, marcomolecules and other substances


create H2O2 to break down poisons and then they break down H2O2 into water


make ATP for the cell and they have their own DNA


it does photosynthesis


gives the plant cells its energy from the sun


network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm

intermediate filament

fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables they maintain cell shape and are used in anchoring organelles and form lamina in the nucleus, it cannot build up or break down


are made of actin subunits and help with cell shape, muscle contraction, cell division and can build up and break down


made of tubulin proteins, can build up and break down, used for chromosome movement and vesicle transport

motor protein

"walk" across the microtubles transporting vesicles, use ATP to walk

model organism

non-human organism that researchers can manipulate, with expectation that we can learn from them and apply it to humans


nitrogenous base with a phosphate group and pentose sugar group, create DNA

nucleic acid

made up of nucleotides and is DNA and RNA


Base pairs are AGC and U, sugar is ribose, has an OH group at #3 carbon spot of the pentose sugar and there is only 1 strand

double helix

shape that DNA is in, looks like a stair case

DNA antiparallel

the 2 DNA stands run in opposite direction which means that one run from 5' to 3' and the other side runs from 3' to 5'


is the end of the nucleic acid that has the phosphate group


is the end of the nucleic acid that has the carbon group and has an OH group on it

complementary base pair

A-T, G-C


complementary base pairing


starts by separating the strands and each strand serves as a template which makes 2 daughter molecules

template strand

one half of the DNA that is unzipped

origin of replication

part on the DNA that starts the replication process, has to be high in As and Ts so they are easier to split apart which is where the bubble forms

replication bubble

where the replication of DNA starts and it separates into 2 replication forks

replication fork

where DNA polymerase III and the Ozazaki fragments being


unwinds the DNA and separates the the strands by breaking down the H bond


ahead of helicase, it relieves supercoiling that is caused by the helicase unwinding the double helix

single-stranded binding proteins

bind to the single strand of DNA and keeps the strand unpaired

DNA polymerase

will build complementary base pair, it needs a 3' OH


connects all the pieces together


adds a primer


short piece of single-stranded RNA that is complementary to the DNA template and replication starts here

leading strand

built in the 5' to 3' direction it is continuous synthesis from the DNA polymerase III building the new DNA strand

lagging strand

strand that is synthesized from the fork towards the bubble and is synthesized in fragments

continuous synthesis

the continuous building of DNA by DNA polymerase III

discontinuous synthesis

fragments of DNA being build from the fork towards the bubble and is not sythesized continuously

okazaki fragment

beginning fragments from the fork towards the bubble


enzyme that cuts nucleic acids and it cuts the distorted nuceic acids


at the end of DNA and it gets cut off and it is a repetition of TTAGGG


rebuilds telomere in stem cells and germ cells


The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template


mRNA to polypeptide, getting from nucleic acid language to protein language


a segment of DNA that contains instructions for building a polypeptide


Where RNA polymerase attached "upstream" of start point

RNA polymerase

unwinds DNA, Adds nucleotides complementary to template strand, RNA strand built in 5' to 3' direction, no need for helicase, no need for primer


is after transcription, uses a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein


three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code


transfer RNA, an RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA

aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA


a nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule

genetic code

codon makes a certain amino acid


makes up part of the ribosome

polyA tail

tail at 3' end that stabilizes RNA molecule and the longer tail means it has a longer life


noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed


coding that is expressed and is left in during RNA processing


necessary for movement of RNA from nucleus to cytosol and it happens in the nucleus in the spliceosome


made up of small nuclear RNA and small nuclear ribonuclear proteins (snRNP)

signal peptide

a sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell


change in an organism's DNA

missense mutation

change in amino acid and the consequence can be non to server

nonsense mutation

introduction of a stop codon really bad mutation

stop codon

tells replication to stop and everything after it is not translated. consequence is a truncated (shortened) protein.

reading frame

area that is being replicated

frameshift mutation

the point of new/deleted base pair the rest of the DNA codons are different


the adding of a nucleotide pair causes a frameshift


losing a nucleotide pair, causes a frameshift


are proteins that assist the non-covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures


tag put on proteins to be destroyed


one pathway to protein destruction


an infectious agent that is a misfolded version of a normal cellular protein. Prions appear to increase in in number by converting correctly folded versions of the protein to more prions

spongiform encephalopathy

caused by mutated prions and makes the brain sponge like

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