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224 terms

European History AP review

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Sir Thomas More
christian humanist, social critic, wrote "Utopia"
Petrarch
called father of humanism, wrote letters to people from ancient Greece and Rome because he didn't see any examples of morality
Neoplatinism
revival of Plato's idea that people know what perfection is
Nominalism
idea that people can only understand specifics, not big ideas
Scholasticism
mix of Aristotle and Christian thinking
empiricism
philosophy that all knowledge is based on experience
humanism
glorification of humanity, philosophy life is worth living for it's own sake, make humans center of attention, or admiration and emulation of Greco-roman culture (in the renaissance)
politique
someone who puts politics above personal beliefs
vernacular
language of the people in a certain area
Johannes Gutenburg
German man who invented the printing press
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "The Prince" which was a political handbook which stated a government should do everything it can to maintain power, and that it is better to be feared than loved
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote "The Courtier," a handbook for how the nobility should act, education very important, completely secular
Michel de Montaigne
well known skeptic
Erasmus
called a man of letters and the prince of humanism, social critic, wrote "The Praise of Folly"
Boticelli
renaissance painter, famous works are "La Primavera" and "The Birth of Venus" (firs full frontal female nude since ancient ties, roman goddess, idea of the perfect woman), work is completely secular
Medici
Florentine bankers, patrons of secular art, symbol is a lion, at one point completely controlled Florence
Boccaccio
wrote "The Decameron", a completely secular book that was put on the index of forbidden books
Raphael
painter who mastered linear and atmospheric perspective, painted "School of Athens" a secular painting using renaissance artists as models for ancient Greek and Roman thinkers, it was hung in the Pope's apartment
Brunelleschi
renaissance architect who made a huge dome on a cathedral in Florence, architect of 3 friends
Donatello
renaissance artist, sculptor of 3 friends, created the first free standing sculpture since Roman times, it was a nude, bronze sculpture of David right after he killed Goliath
Massaccio
renaissance artist, painter of 3 friends, painted the trinity with a triangle composition and people that had muscle definition
Leonardo da Vinci
called the first renaissance man, inventor, painted the "Mona Lisa", "The Last Supper", and "Madonna on the Rocks"
Michealangelo
renaissance sculptor and painter, painted part of the Sistine Chapel, sculpted the David which shows restrained energy
Pedro Cabral
Portuguese man who landed in Brazil accidentally and started a colony there for Portugal
Philip II
super religious (Catholic) leader of Spain, lost Spain's possession of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada was defeated by (Protestant) England during his reign
Frugger family
German banking dynasty
Enlightened Despot
an absolute leader who ties to advance society through ideas of the enlightenment (such as education and social justice) but is actually just trying to create a more efficient state
Galileo Galilei
made the telescope, showed Jupiter had satellites and the moon has mountains (which proves the heavens are imperfect), advocate of the heliocentric theory, forced to renounce his ideas by the Church, wrote "The Dialogue on Two Great World Systems", put under house arrest
Laissez Faire
economic theory (created by Adam Smith) that the economy should be left alone and will be guided by an invisible hand through supply and demand
philosophes
enlightenment thinkers who pondered mans existence and supported findings of the scientific revolution
Voltaire
French philosophe, believed in religious toleration, questioning authority, and wrote "Candide" which is a satire
Jean Jacques Rousseau
enlightenment thinker who believed humans are basically good but society makes them bad, absolute government that would protect the General Will (what is best for society), and doesn't believe in private property
Salons
homes run by upper class women where philosophes would come and discuss their ideas, mainly in Paris
Rene Descartes
enlightenment thinker who created the principal of Doubt (refuse to accept authority without proof), believed in induction, and his ideas influenced the Scientific Method
Nicholas Copernicus
proposed the heliocentric theory
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty between the winners of WWI (France, Britain, US, Italy, Japan) and Germany, forced Germany to have massive reperations, war guilt clause, and League of Nations
SPD
German socialist party, Ludendorf and Hindenburg gave them power in 1918, so people will blame them for signing Treaty of Versailles. Also had to put down USPD with army
Reischtag
German parlaiment, no real power because kaiser had absolute power
Big Three
France with Clemenceau, Britain with Lloyd George, and the US with Wilson
Georges Clemenceau
"The Tiger", president of France during WWI, 84 years old in 1918, mayor of Paris during the seige of Paris, thinks Germany is the cause of war, wants a Carthegian peace
Treaty of London
Italy agrees to enter WWI (on Britain and France's side) if they get land from Austria (the Dalmatian coast)
Mussolini
militaty dictator of Italy, comes to power in 1922
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany defeated Russia and took great amounts of the best Russian farm land
Woodrow Wilson
American President during WWI, wanted the US to enter the European balance of power, idealist, created 14 points for the Treaty of Versailles
David Lloyd George
Prime Minister of England, needs to compromise between France and the US
Zimmerman Telegram
Germany relaized US would join WWI so they tried to get Mexico on their side, US found out and it sparked thier entry to the war
Paul von Hindengurg
president who appoints Hitler, very important general, runs the military in WWI
Erich von Ludendorff
general, won 2 great battles against Russia, runs the government in WWI
Battles of Verdun
bloody battle between Germany and France in WWI
Battles of the Somme
bloody battles between Germany and Britain in WWI
Revisionists
group of American historians, weren't in alliance system and didn't suffer as many losses so not as many hard feelings, professors from Harvard and Yale blames circumstances, not Germany for WWI
Fritz Fischer
German historian who read secret documents from WWI and states that Germans planned WWI (for land, threat of socialism, and threat of slavism) and it really is their fault
Black Hand
extreme Serbian nationalist group, used terrorist tactics, assassinated Arch Duke Ferdinand (and his wife)
Triple Entente
Britain, France and Russia's peace time alliance
Triple Alliance
Germany, Autria-Hungary, and Italy's peace time alliance
Schlieffen plan
plan in case war with France and Russia, attack France first with whole army b/c they will be fastest to mobilize and will only expect half of the army, defeat France, attack Russia, who takes longer to mobilize next
Treaty of San Stefano
Russia makes Turkey sign treaty that gives them land near the Black sea, forced to give it back during Congress of Berlin
Emperor's League
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia's group because Germany has an alliance with Austria and with Russia (but Austria and Russia hate each other)
Marxism
theory created by Karl Marx, proletariate rule, stateless society, violent workers revolution against bougeoisie, equality
Revisionist Socialism
gain power through elections, gradual change to communism, no violent revolution
Anarchism
individualist, radical, violent tactics, want no state, state of nature
Anarcho-Syndication
believe in general strike, syndicates would run the country
Belle Epoque
name for positive view of the 1870s (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theartres, education, universal male suffrage)
Fan de Siecle
end of 19th century, opposite of golden age (Paris Commune, workers movements, anti-semitism, anarchists, women questioning authority, Darwin, Freud, Nietzche, and Einstein blew away liberal thinking)
Dark Age
period between the fall of Rome and the Rennaissance where the church controled almost all aspects of life
Feudalism
rose from need for protection from nomadic tribes, people became serfs, weak central government, rigid class structure, no trade
fief
land given to vassels
powers of Dark Ages Church
only stable unifying institution in the dark ages
Excommunication
being kicked out of the Church
Interdict
a country being kicked out of the Church
Tithe
church tax-10% of income
Magna Carta
Agreement between nobles and King of England, Church supported nobles, gave nobles more power- parliament
Impact of Crusades
trade, arabic number system, medical advances, print money instead of barter system, larger bourgeoisie
Avignon Exile/Babalonian Captivity
French pope elected and moved to Avignon
Great Schism
Italian and French Pope
Council of Constane
1414- all Popes forced to step down, new Italian Pope elected and brought back to Rome
John Wycliffe
lived from 1320-1384, English preacher, said you don't need to go to Church to get into heaven, maybe you don't need sacraments either (because they aren't in the bible)
John Hus
lived from 1369-1415, followed Wycliffe, burned at stake at the Council of Constance for heracy
Renaissance
rebirth of humanism, secular culture
Nepatism
giving positions to family members
simony
sale of chruch positions
reformation
final splitting of the Christian Church
Martin Luther
posted 95 thesis, started protestant church, nominalist, translated Bible into vernacular, believed in salvation by faith alone and bible is the sole authority, personalized reiligion, from Holy Roman Empire
Charles V
Habsburg, King of Spain and Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, posed threat of universal Monarchy, Catholic
Diet of Worms
meeting Charles V calls to confront Martin Luther, when he doesn't give up he is outlawed
Savonarola
banned luxuries in Florence-arrested for treason
Veillée
rural town meetings, literate townspeople read out loud, how news traveled to remote areas, how Lutheranism spread
Johann Tetzel
sold indulgences, corrupt/abuse of the church, made Martin Luther extremely annoyed
Urich Zwingli
swiss humanist, simplified religious belief, died fighting Catholics
Anabaptists
believed people should choose to be baptised (when they are adults)
Melchiorites
religious group that Catholics and Protestants fought in Münster
John Calvin
well educated French man that lived between 1504 and 1564 and who believed in predestination (it's already decided if you are getting into heaven), wrote "Institures of the Christian Religion" in 1536, very disciplined, accepted in Geneva
War of Schmalkaldic League
Protestant nobles vs. Charles V, first war of religion fought in Europe, France supports nobles even though France is Catholic to weaken Charles V
Peace of Augsburg
ends War of Schmalkaldic League, gave nobles the rights to choose the religion of the people on his land
Transubstantiation
belief that the bread and wine in the Eucarist are transformed into the actual body and blood of Christ (luther does not believe in this but the Catholic Church does)
Henry VII
King of England that won the civil war of the roses, power hungry, wants wealth and alliances
Henry VIII
marries his brothers wife with special permission from the Pope (because their marriage wasn't consumated), doesn't have a son so wants a divorce - pope doesn't allow it, splits from the catholic church with the Act of Supremacy, wants "catholicism without the pope"
Edward Tudor
Henry VIII's only son, very weak, becomes king and dies shortly after
Mary I
tried to convert England back to Catholicism, executed 100s of people, married to Phillip II of Spain (Habsuburg)
Elizabeth I
Protestant, supported colonialism, had the Bible translated to English, made the Church of England have a more Protestant doctrine
Immanuel Kant
believed all humans possessed reasoning called categorical imperitive
Ivan the terrible
aggressive Russian ruler who had a very violent time of troubles. His death marked the beginning of the romonov rule in russia.
Jacobins
Radical Republican party in French Revolution. killed moderate republicans (Girondins) and initiated the reign of terror
national assembly
legislative assembly formed when third estate broke away from the estates general
John Locke
enlightenment thinker, believed in the "tabula rasa" (that everyone is born with a blank slate therefore everyone is equal), believed in natural rights of life, liberty and property, disliked absolutism
Cardinal Rishelieu
cardinal who was France's chief minister during the reign of Louis VIII with Catherine de Medici
Habsburgs
powerful royal family in Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain fought in a lot of wars, catholic, and owned huge territory
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
made Church officials pledge loyalty to the state above the church during the French revolution
Versailles
lavish palace built by louis XIV, trap for the nobles who were to concerned with their lavish lifestyle to rebel. Dedicated to Louis "the Sun King"
Edmund Burke
conservative, didn't believe in revolution, wanted gradual change, everything has to be based on countries traditions, criticized French Revolution
Olympe de Gouges
feminist who added women to the declaration of the rights of man from French Revolution, killed during reign of terror
nationalism
pride in your country or ethnic group, often believe your group is superior to others
Jean Baptiste Colbert
economic minister of Louis XIV, supported mercantilism,
civic humanism
influenced by Petrarch, used their classical education of the good of the public
Denis Diderot
made first encyclopedia during enlightenment
national convention
formed in the French Revolution by Tennis Court Oath, created constitution, later established National Assembly
Rococo art
art that depicted the french nobility. Used pastels, swirls of color, visible brush strokes
Bastile
symbol of the old regime, stormed during French Revolution
Napolean Bonaparte
brilliant general, emperor of France, Napoleonic code, public education, established order, defeated at waterloo
Hegel
believed history is a continuing cycle of thesis and anti-thesis
Spanish Inquisition
Ferdinand and Isabella forced all Jews and Muslims to convert to Christianity to unite Spain under the Church
Physiocrats
enlightenment economic reformers
Blaise Pascal
French mathematician, supported Scientific method but stated the importance of faith
hundred days
when Napolean escaped from Elba and took over France again for 100 days until he was exiled to Helena
Catherine de Medici
controlled France through her 3 sons with Cardinal Richelieu, ordered St. Bartholomew's Day Masacre, wanted to maintain Catholic dominance
Huguenots
French Calvinists, oppressed by Catholics, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Pragmatic Sanction
allowed Habsburg lands of Austria to go to Maria Theresa who was no the male heir
Spinoza
(1632-1677) Wrote "Ethics Demonstrated in the Geocentric Manner" (1677), rejected the Cartesian Dualism. Pantheism; he believed that religion is not neccessarily opposed to science. Through scientific knowledge can you truly find who God is.
Vesalius
created a modern anatomy text
confederation of the rhine
League of German States (instead of Holy Roman Empire) organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Malthus and Ricardo
liberals were right to reject government interference in economic affairs because it could do no good
Robert Owen
he believed that no one was "responsible for his will and his own actions" because "his whole character is formed independently of himself." so he wanted child labor laws
Glasnost
Mikhail Gorbachev embraced this policy of liberation known in Russian as an openness in government combined with a greater degree of free expression.
Treaty of Maastricht
A treaty signed by twelve members of the European Community and most of the seven nations of the European Free Trade Association which anticipated the creation of a European Economic Area, providing for the elimination of national barriers to the movement of capital, goods and services, and people between member states, and planned the future use of a common currency.
Lech Walesa
electrician from Gdansk who became the leader of the Polish Solidarity movement
European Community
This organization was created in 1967 and subsidized farmers and some favored industries and transferred money from wealthier northern states to poorer members like Greece and Portugal and eliminated troublesome tariffs.
Ethnic cleansing
The policy practiced by Bosnian Serbs which forced non-Serbs from their homes and drove them away or imprisoned them.
Tony Blair
I am the current Prime Minister of England who has implemented a "third way" program, reducing Labour's traditional reliance on state action to address social problems.
START I
The United States and the Soviet Union signed this treaty in July 1991 which called for a reduction in the number of long-range nuclear warheads and bombs held by each country by about one-third over a period of seven years.
Perestroika
A restructuring of the Soviet system in order to make it more efficient and responsive to the needs of soviet citizens.
Commonwealth of Independent States
A governmental organization founded on December 8, 1991 which composed of former Soviet republics and a partial successor to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Persian Gulf War
A war fought early in 1991 between Iraq and a coalition of 39 countries organized mainly by the US and the United Nations which took place chiefly in Iraq and the tiny oil-rich nation of Kuwait.
Slobodan Milosevic
I was the leader of the Serb Communist Party who turned the Communist Party and state apparatus into instruments serving Serb nationalist interest, preparing to establish a "Greater Serbia" if Yugoslavia broke up.
START II
The United States and Russia signed this treaty in 1993 which would cut the total number of US and former Soviet long-range nuclear warheads and bombs to less than half.
Vaclav Havel
This leader of the Civic Forum was the first president elected under free elections in Czechoslovakia after the fall of the Communists in 1989.
Dayton Peace Agreement
Orchestrated in November 1995 by the US Government, Bosnia was to remain a single state that included a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serb Republic.
Nicolas Ceausescu
I awarded myself titles such as "Genius of the Carpathians" and the "Danube of Thought" and vowed that reform would come to Romania "when pears grow on poplar trees".
Velvet Revolution
A bloodless revolution led by writers, actors, and students in Czechoslovakia which swept away communism.
Boris Yeltsin
A charismatic person and former mayor of Moscow, I rose to power in Russia as a liberal reformer challenging Gorbachev's authority and the very legitimacy of the Soviet state.
Mikhail Gorbachev
I undertook reform in the Soviet Union in a last attempt to save the Communist state.
Helmut Kohl
I led the Christian Democrats in their return to power in 1982 in West Germany and I conntinued to dominate the political life of the German Federal Republic.
Margaret Thatcher
I was nicknamed the "Iron Lady" and was the first woman to become the British Prime Minister who committed herself to ending completely the government's control over major industries and to slashing government expenses.
Truman Doctrine
"It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples [against Communist aggression] ". This statement made in 1947 advocating economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey is derived from this document.
Geneva Accords
This formally divided Vietnam into the Communist North and Non-Communist South.
containment
This term refers to the United States' attempts to prevent the spread of communism to Western Europe.
Marshall Plan
This four-year program (1948-1951) contributed 13 billion dollars to rebuilding the war-ravaged cities of Europe, encouraging industrial and agricultural growth, fostering political stability, encouraging trade, and most importantly, reducing the danger of Communism.
German Federal Republic
When Germany was divided, the United States, France, and Great Britain combined their territories to form West Germany, also known as this.
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 16-28, 1962 were arguably the most dangerous thirteen days of the cold War. During this period nuclear war seemed not only plausible but probable. This particularly unstable time was due to this dilemma.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
"An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all." This statement reflects the United States' goal of collective security, realized through this organization.
Berlin Wall
This symbol of the Cold War was created by the East Germans in 1961, prompted by the prosperity of West Germany, which attracted many to migrate, causing much political embarrassment.
nonproliferation treaty
Marking the end of the Cold War, this document was signed, acknowledging the mutual efforts of the US and the Soviet Union to promote a more peaceful relationship.
deterrence
This American policy focused on strengthening the US and its allies in order to discourage Soviet aggression.
Nokola Khrushchev
Upon gaining control of the Soviet Union, I criticized the "cult of personality" of the Stalinist Era and argued that a "peaceful coexistence" between communism and capitalism was possible.
Sputnik
Space exploration became part of the Cold War when the Soviets launched this, the first space rocket.
Korean War
This was the first major military conflict between the West and the Communists.
Winston Churchill
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the Continent . . . This is certainly not the liberated Europe we fought to build up." This is an excerpt from my famous "Iron Curtain Speech".
Warsaw Pact
This alliance of the Soviet Union and its satellites, including Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, created unified military command and mutual protection from attack.
German Democratic Republic
In response to the formation of a united West Germany, the Soviets created this territory, also known as East Germany
Wladislaw Gomulka
I was imprisoned during Stalin's reign and emerged in 1956 to head the Polish government.
Boris Pasternak
In 1958, I won a Nobel Prize for literature for my novel, Dr. Zhivago. Unfortunately, my work was censored by the Soviet government and I was forbidden to receive my award.
Berlin Blockade
In efforts to gain complete control of Berlin, the Soviet Union instituted this in 1948, in response to the unification of American, French, and British zones to form West Germany.
Geneva Summit
This meeting between President Eisenhower, the Prime Ministers of Britain and France, and the Soviets, led to a slightly more agreeable atmosphere between nations.
Iron Curtain
Churchill's description of Stalin's expansion of Communist totalitarianism, separating the people of Eastern and Central Europe from the rest of the world.
Potsdam Conference
Held in July of 1945. Attended by Stalin, Truman, and Churchill. Displayed the disunity of the shaky alliance.
Battle of Midway
American victory against the superior Japanese naval force
appeasement
This policy was used by England and France. In it they agreed to give in to the demands of Hitler, hoping that his territorial expansion would cease once his demands were met.
Battle of Stalingrad
A great turning point in the war, that marked the end of Nazi advances in the Soviet Union.
Colonel Klaus von Stauffenberg
I attempted to assassinate Hitler by bringing a bomb in my briefcase to a meeting. I hoped that his death would result in the forming of Germany into a fascist state paralleling Italy.
Josip Broz
I am a preserving communist in Yugoslavia. I am known by the name of Tito. I helped lead a resistance movement that aided in Germany's military demise.
Operation Overlord
Reference to the planned invasion of France, "D-Day", coordinated by General Eisenhower
Kristallnacht
Also known as 'Night of the Broken Glass'. When Nazi mobs wrecked Jewish temples throughout Germany.
Battle of the Bulge
The last German offensive. The battle took place in Belgium. After this battle, the Germans were in retreat on all fronts.
Teheran Conference
A pledge between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin which guaranteed that after the end of the war Germany would be occupied by Allied powers and demilitarized.
The Desert Fox
Refers to General Erwin Rommel who attacked the lifeline of Britain, the Suez Canal.
Nuremberg Laws of 1935
Stripped Jews in Germany of their rights as citizens.
Nagasaki
Where the second atomic bomb was dropped in Japan, causing them to surrender to the United States.
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
An ideological alliance between Italy, Germany, and Japan, that would uphold mutual cooperation between the three nations.
Blitzkrieg
Referred to the "lighting war" or Germany's use of arms and air support.
Mein Kampf
Hitler's autobiography, which presented his plan for Nazi Germany. It also mentioned the inferiority of non-fascist ideologies and people especially the Jews and the Communist Russians.
Anschluss
The forced union of Germany and Austria.
autarchy
The Nazis consolidated power by following this policy which builds economic self-sufficiency, by allowing a country to strive independent of imports and foreign markets.
Nazis
The Nationalist Socialist German Worker's Party, is another way of referring to this organization.
March on Rome
Occurred in 1922 and it caused the current government to collapse, allowing Mussolini to create a new form of government.
dadaist
This group of artist were the first to rebel against the absurdity war by rejecting all artistic convention.
Munich Agreement
In 1938 Neville Chamberlain declared "peace in our time" believing this this accord would appease Hitler.
Dawes Plan
The European economy was stirred by this League of Nations commission that extended the schedule for payment of German reparations.
Fascist
These political parties were characterized by racism and xenophobia and had their origins in the anti-republican nationalism of the late 19th century.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
In 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union both agreed to peace with this accord.
General Fransico Franco
This authoritarian dictator became known as "Caudillo" when he came to power in 1939.
bauhaus
In hopes to reconcile art and industry Walter Gropius founded this school in 1919.
Weimar
In 1919 the Reichstag approved the constitution of this new German Republic.
Sigmund Freud
The ideas of this founding father of psychoanalysis were translated into many languages and quickly spread during the 1920's.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Under this 1928 agreement the major powers of Europe renounced war as an intrument of national policy.
Sinn Fein
When translated from Gaelic, the name of this Irish Republican political organization means "Ourselves Alone".
Leon Trotsky
member of the Bolshevik Party, part of Lenin's Politburo, thought to be Lenins successor but Stalin took power and sent him into exile and then killed him in Mexico in 1940
Pablo Picasso
This father of cubism expressed his disgust for the Spanish Civil War in his painting Guernica.
Joseph Pilsudski
Poland was the first country to become a dictatorship, after World War I, with this man as its leader.
Ulysses
Irish write James Joyce wrote this epic novel using the technique of "stream of consciousness".
Popular Front
This group was an alliance between the Radical, Socialist, and Communist parties in France.
Guarino da Verona & Vittorino da Feltre
educators who turned the ideals of the humanists into a practical curriculum. They founded a school in which students learned Latin, Greek, mathematics, music, philosophy, and social graces.
Marsilio Ficino
a member of a new, later group of humanists called the Neoplatonists, who believed in studying the grand ideas in the work of Plato and other philosophers as opposed to leading the "active life" the civic humanists lead. Ficino believed that Plato's ideas showed the dignity and immortality of the human soul
Giovanni Pico
another Neoplatonist who believed that he could reconcile all philosophies and show that a single truth lay behind them all
Contraposto
posture in which the subject is shifting his or her balance
Giotto
was a painter famous for the solid bodies, the expression of human emotion, and the suggestion of landscape in his paintings
Titian
painter who painted scenes of luxury in such a vivid, immediate way that his paintings seem real to the viewer
Petition of Right
passed in 1628 (Charles simply agreed to be able to get more $), it stated the rights of Parliament, such as due process of law (Habeas Corpus), and no taxation w/out Parliament's consent
Treaty of Dover
1670, Charles II secretly signed the treaty with France. The treaty stated that, in exchange for military support (against the Dutch) and $, Charles would try to convert England back to Catholicism and to convert back to Catholicism himself (he did on his death bed)
Declaration of Indulgence
1672, w/out consulting Parliament, Charles issued a Declaration of Indulgence, in which he promised not to enforce the laws against Catholics and the non-Conformists (they were simply included to mask Charles' pro-Catholic sentiment). Parliament saw through the trick, however, and demanded that the king retract the declaration, which he did
Test Act
response to declaration of indulgence, Parliament passed the Test Act in 1673, which prohibited anyone who had not had an Anglican communion from entering into the army or public service. The law was aimed at excluding Catholics. Charles allowed the law to be passed, but his used his powers of dispensation to sneak some Catholics into public service anyhow
Galen
influence was far lesser than that of Aristotle and Ptolemy, Galen's medical and anatomical theories dominated the scientific world for years even though they were proved wrong by dissections
David Hume
dead end of end of empiricism. He stated that there can't be any absolute knowledge if everything is based on the senses. So, people can know things through common sense, but not through philosophy (which he says is a joke) and he hates dogma
Mannerism
a reaction to the glorification of humans seen in the Renaissance, Mannerism featured distorted human figures, strange perspectives and unnatural colors and lighting. Mannerism reached its peak during the instability of the Reformation, and it reflected the concerns of a troubled time. The major Mannerist painter was El Greco
Baroque
a reaction to Mannerism, the Baroque style occurred during the Counter Reformation, and it reflected the desire for grandeur and the wish to inspire and awe people with God's greatness. A famous baroque painter was Caravaggio (1571 - 1610) whose paintings were famous for their depictions of highly emotional moments. Other famous baroque painters were Rubens (1577 - 1640), and Veláquez (1599 - 1660), who glorified church figures and rulers. Bernini, a baroque sculptor and architect, did the inside and outside of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome
Monteverde
a reaction to Mannerism, the Baroque style occurred during the Counter Reformation, and it reflected the desire for grandeur and the wish to inspire and awe people with God's greatness. A famous baroque painter was Caravaggio (1571 - 1610) whose paintings were famous for their depictions of highly emotional moments. Other famous baroque painters were Rubens (1577 - 1640), and Veláquez (1599 - 1660), who glorified church figures and rulers. Bernini, a baroque sculptor and architect, did the inside and outside of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome