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Sir Thomas More

christian humanist, social critic, wrote "Utopia"


called father of humanism, wrote letters to people from ancient Greece and Rome because he didn't see any examples of morality


revival of Plato's idea that people know what perfection is


idea that people can only understand specifics, not big ideas


mix of Aristotle and Christian thinking


philosophy that all knowledge is based on experience


glorification of humanity, philosophy life is worth living for it's own sake, make humans center of attention, or admiration and emulation of Greco-roman culture (in the renaissance)


someone who puts politics above personal beliefs


language of the people in a certain area

Johannes Gutenburg

German man who invented the printing press

Niccolo Machiavelli

wrote "The Prince" which was a political handbook which stated a government should do everything it can to maintain power, and that it is better to be feared than loved

Baldassare Castiglione

wrote "The Courtier," a handbook for how the nobility should act, education very important, completely secular

Michel de Montaigne

well known skeptic


called a man of letters and the prince of humanism, social critic, wrote "The Praise of Folly"


renaissance painter, famous works are "La Primavera" and "The Birth of Venus" (firs full frontal female nude since ancient ties, roman goddess, idea of the perfect woman), work is completely secular


Florentine bankers, patrons of secular art, symbol is a lion, at one point completely controlled Florence


wrote "The Decameron", a completely secular book that was put on the index of forbidden books


painter who mastered linear and atmospheric perspective, painted "School of Athens" a secular painting using renaissance artists as models for ancient Greek and Roman thinkers, it was hung in the Pope's apartment


renaissance architect who made a huge dome on a cathedral in Florence, architect of 3 friends


renaissance artist, sculptor of 3 friends, created the first free standing sculpture since Roman times, it was a nude, bronze sculpture of David right after he killed Goliath


renaissance artist, painter of 3 friends, painted the trinity with a triangle composition and people that had muscle definition

Leonardo da Vinci

called the first renaissance man, inventor, painted the "Mona Lisa", "The Last Supper", and "Madonna on the Rocks"


renaissance sculptor and painter, painted part of the Sistine Chapel, sculpted the David which shows restrained energy

Pedro Cabral

Portuguese man who landed in Brazil accidentally and started a colony there for Portugal

Philip II

super religious (Catholic) leader of Spain, lost Spain's possession of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada was defeated by (Protestant) England during his reign

Frugger family

German banking dynasty

Enlightened Despot

an absolute leader who ties to advance society through ideas of the enlightenment (such as education and social justice) but is actually just trying to create a more efficient state

Galileo Galilei

made the telescope, showed Jupiter had satellites and the moon has mountains (which proves the heavens are imperfect), advocate of the heliocentric theory, forced to renounce his ideas by the Church, wrote "The Dialogue on Two Great World Systems", put under house arrest

Laissez Faire

economic theory (created by Adam Smith) that the economy should be left alone and will be guided by an invisible hand through supply and demand


enlightenment thinkers who pondered mans existence and supported findings of the scientific revolution


French philosophe, believed in religious toleration, questioning authority, and wrote "Candide" which is a satire

Jean Jacques Rousseau

enlightenment thinker who believed humans are basically good but society makes them bad, absolute government that would protect the General Will (what is best for society), and doesn't believe in private property


homes run by upper class women where philosophes would come and discuss their ideas, mainly in Paris

Rene Descartes

enlightenment thinker who created the principal of Doubt (refuse to accept authority without proof), believed in induction, and his ideas influenced the Scientific Method

Nicholas Copernicus

proposed the heliocentric theory

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty between the winners of WWI (France, Britain, US, Italy, Japan) and Germany, forced Germany to have massive reperations, war guilt clause, and League of Nations


German socialist party, Ludendorf and Hindenburg gave them power in 1918, so people will blame them for signing Treaty of Versailles. Also had to put down USPD with army


German parlaiment, no real power because kaiser had absolute power

Big Three

France with Clemenceau, Britain with Lloyd George, and the US with Wilson

Georges Clemenceau

"The Tiger", president of France during WWI, 84 years old in 1918, mayor of Paris during the seige of Paris, thinks Germany is the cause of war, wants a Carthegian peace

Treaty of London

Italy agrees to enter WWI (on Britain and France's side) if they get land from Austria (the Dalmatian coast)


militaty dictator of Italy, comes to power in 1922

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Germany defeated Russia and took great amounts of the best Russian farm land

Woodrow Wilson

American President during WWI, wanted the US to enter the European balance of power, idealist, created 14 points for the Treaty of Versailles

David Lloyd George

Prime Minister of England, needs to compromise between France and the US

Zimmerman Telegram

Germany relaized US would join WWI so they tried to get Mexico on their side, US found out and it sparked thier entry to the war

Paul von Hindengurg

president who appoints Hitler, very important general, runs the military in WWI

Erich von Ludendorff

general, won 2 great battles against Russia, runs the government in WWI

Battles of Verdun

bloody battle between Germany and France in WWI

Battles of the Somme

bloody battles between Germany and Britain in WWI


group of American historians, weren't in alliance system and didn't suffer as many losses so not as many hard feelings, professors from Harvard and Yale blames circumstances, not Germany for WWI

Fritz Fischer

German historian who read secret documents from WWI and states that Germans planned WWI (for land, threat of socialism, and threat of slavism) and it really is their fault

Black Hand

extreme Serbian nationalist group, used terrorist tactics, assassinated Arch Duke Ferdinand (and his wife)

Triple Entente

Britain, France and Russia's peace time alliance

Triple Alliance

Germany, Autria-Hungary, and Italy's peace time alliance

Schlieffen plan

plan in case war with France and Russia, attack France first with whole army b/c they will be fastest to mobilize and will only expect half of the army, defeat France, attack Russia, who takes longer to mobilize next

Treaty of San Stefano

Russia makes Turkey sign treaty that gives them land near the Black sea, forced to give it back during Congress of Berlin

Emperor's League

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia's group because Germany has an alliance with Austria and with Russia (but Austria and Russia hate each other)


theory created by Karl Marx, proletariate rule, stateless society, violent workers revolution against bougeoisie, equality

Revisionist Socialism

gain power through elections, gradual change to communism, no violent revolution


individualist, radical, violent tactics, want no state, state of nature


believe in general strike, syndicates would run the country

Belle Epoque

name for positive view of the 1870s (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theartres, education, universal male suffrage)

Fan de Siecle

end of 19th century, opposite of golden age (Paris Commune, workers movements, anti-semitism, anarchists, women questioning authority, Darwin, Freud, Nietzche, and Einstein blew away liberal thinking)

Dark Age

period between the fall of Rome and the Rennaissance where the church controled almost all aspects of life


rose from need for protection from nomadic tribes, people became serfs, weak central government, rigid class structure, no trade


land given to vassels

powers of Dark Ages Church

only stable unifying institution in the dark ages


being kicked out of the Church


a country being kicked out of the Church


church tax-10% of income

Magna Carta

Agreement between nobles and King of England, Church supported nobles, gave nobles more power- parliament

Impact of Crusades

trade, arabic number system, medical advances, print money instead of barter system, larger bourgeoisie

Avignon Exile/Babalonian Captivity

French pope elected and moved to Avignon

Great Schism

Italian and French Pope

Council of Constane

1414- all Popes forced to step down, new Italian Pope elected and brought back to Rome

John Wycliffe

lived from 1320-1384, English preacher, said you don't need to go to Church to get into heaven, maybe you don't need sacraments either (because they aren't in the bible)

John Hus

lived from 1369-1415, followed Wycliffe, burned at stake at the Council of Constance for heracy


rebirth of humanism, secular culture


giving positions to family members


sale of chruch positions


final splitting of the Christian Church

Martin Luther

posted 95 thesis, started protestant church, nominalist, translated Bible into vernacular, believed in salvation by faith alone and bible is the sole authority, personalized reiligion, from Holy Roman Empire

Charles V

Habsburg, King of Spain and Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, posed threat of universal Monarchy, Catholic

Diet of Worms

meeting Charles V calls to confront Martin Luther, when he doesn't give up he is outlawed


banned luxuries in Florence-arrested for treason


rural town meetings, literate townspeople read out loud, how news traveled to remote areas, how Lutheranism spread

Johann Tetzel

sold indulgences, corrupt/abuse of the church, made Martin Luther extremely annoyed

Urich Zwingli

swiss humanist, simplified religious belief, died fighting Catholics


believed people should choose to be baptised (when they are adults)


religious group that Catholics and Protestants fought in Münster

John Calvin

well educated French man that lived between 1504 and 1564 and who believed in predestination (it's already decided if you are getting into heaven), wrote "Institures of the Christian Religion" in 1536, very disciplined, accepted in Geneva

War of Schmalkaldic League

Protestant nobles vs. Charles V, first war of religion fought in Europe, France supports nobles even though France is Catholic to weaken Charles V

Peace of Augsburg

ends War of Schmalkaldic League, gave nobles the rights to choose the religion of the people on his land


belief that the bread and wine in the Eucarist are transformed into the actual body and blood of Christ (luther does not believe in this but the Catholic Church does)

Henry VII

King of England that won the civil war of the roses, power hungry, wants wealth and alliances

Henry VIII

marries his brothers wife with special permission from the Pope (because their marriage wasn't consumated), doesn't have a son so wants a divorce - pope doesn't allow it, splits from the catholic church with the Act of Supremacy, wants "catholicism without the pope"

Edward Tudor

Henry VIII's only son, very weak, becomes king and dies shortly after

Mary I

tried to convert England back to Catholicism, executed 100s of people, married to Phillip II of Spain (Habsuburg)

Elizabeth I

Protestant, supported colonialism, had the Bible translated to English, made the Church of England have a more Protestant doctrine

Immanuel Kant

believed all humans possessed reasoning called categorical imperitive

Ivan the terrible

aggressive Russian ruler who had a very violent time of troubles. His death marked the beginning of the romonov rule in russia.


Radical Republican party in French Revolution. killed moderate republicans (Girondins) and initiated the reign of terror

national assembly

legislative assembly formed when third estate broke away from the estates general

John Locke

enlightenment thinker, believed in the "tabula rasa" (that everyone is born with a blank slate therefore everyone is equal), believed in natural rights of life, liberty and property, disliked absolutism

Cardinal Rishelieu

cardinal who was France's chief minister during the reign of Louis VIII with Catherine de Medici


powerful royal family in Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain fought in a lot of wars, catholic, and owned huge territory

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

made Church officials pledge loyalty to the state above the church during the French revolution


lavish palace built by louis XIV, trap for the nobles who were to concerned with their lavish lifestyle to rebel. Dedicated to Louis "the Sun King"

Edmund Burke

conservative, didn't believe in revolution, wanted gradual change, everything has to be based on countries traditions, criticized French Revolution

Olympe de Gouges

feminist who added women to the declaration of the rights of man from French Revolution, killed during reign of terror


pride in your country or ethnic group, often believe your group is superior to others

Jean Baptiste Colbert

economic minister of Louis XIV, supported mercantilism,

civic humanism

influenced by Petrarch, used their classical education of the good of the public

Denis Diderot

made first encyclopedia during enlightenment

national convention

formed in the French Revolution by Tennis Court Oath, created constitution, later established National Assembly

Rococo art

art that depicted the french nobility. Used pastels, swirls of color, visible brush strokes


symbol of the old regime, stormed during French Revolution

Napolean Bonaparte

brilliant general, emperor of France, Napoleonic code, public education, established order, defeated at waterloo


believed history is a continuing cycle of thesis and anti-thesis

Spanish Inquisition

Ferdinand and Isabella forced all Jews and Muslims to convert to Christianity to unite Spain under the Church


enlightenment economic reformers

Blaise Pascal

French mathematician, supported Scientific method but stated the importance of faith

hundred days

when Napolean escaped from Elba and took over France again for 100 days until he was exiled to Helena

Catherine de Medici

controlled France through her 3 sons with Cardinal Richelieu, ordered St. Bartholomew's Day Masacre, wanted to maintain Catholic dominance


French Calvinists, oppressed by Catholics, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Pragmatic Sanction

allowed Habsburg lands of Austria to go to Maria Theresa who was no the male heir


(1632-1677) Wrote "Ethics Demonstrated in the Geocentric Manner" (1677), rejected the Cartesian Dualism. Pantheism; he believed that religion is not neccessarily opposed to science. Through scientific knowledge can you truly find who God is.


created a modern anatomy text

confederation of the rhine

League of German States (instead of Holy Roman Empire) organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Malthus and Ricardo

liberals were right to reject government interference in economic affairs because it could do no good

Robert Owen

he believed that no one was "responsible for his will and his own actions" because "his whole character is formed independently of himself." so he wanted child labor laws


Mikhail Gorbachev embraced this policy of liberation known in Russian as an openness in government combined with a greater degree of free expression.

Treaty of Maastricht

A treaty signed by twelve members of the European Community and most of the seven nations of the European Free Trade Association which anticipated the creation of a European Economic Area, providing for the elimination of national barriers to the movement of capital, goods and services, and people between member states, and planned the future use of a common currency.

Lech Walesa

electrician from Gdansk who became the leader of the Polish Solidarity movement

European Community

This organization was created in 1967 and subsidized farmers and some favored industries and transferred money from wealthier northern states to poorer members like Greece and Portugal and eliminated troublesome tariffs.

Ethnic cleansing

The policy practiced by Bosnian Serbs which forced non-Serbs from their homes and drove them away or imprisoned them.

Tony Blair

I am the current Prime Minister of England who has implemented a "third way" program, reducing Labour's traditional reliance on state action to address social problems.


The United States and the Soviet Union signed this treaty in July 1991 which called for a reduction in the number of long-range nuclear warheads and bombs held by each country by about one-third over a period of seven years.


A restructuring of the Soviet system in order to make it more efficient and responsive to the needs of soviet citizens.

Commonwealth of Independent States

A governmental organization founded on December 8, 1991 which composed of former Soviet republics and a partial successor to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Persian Gulf War

A war fought early in 1991 between Iraq and a coalition of 39 countries organized mainly by the US and the United Nations which took place chiefly in Iraq and the tiny oil-rich nation of Kuwait.

Slobodan Milosevic

I was the leader of the Serb Communist Party who turned the Communist Party and state apparatus into instruments serving Serb nationalist interest, preparing to establish a "Greater Serbia" if Yugoslavia broke up.


The United States and Russia signed this treaty in 1993 which would cut the total number of US and former Soviet long-range nuclear warheads and bombs to less than half.

Vaclav Havel

This leader of the Civic Forum was the first president elected under free elections in Czechoslovakia after the fall of the Communists in 1989.

Dayton Peace Agreement

Orchestrated in November 1995 by the US Government, Bosnia was to remain a single state that included a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serb Republic.

Nicolas Ceausescu

I awarded myself titles such as "Genius of the Carpathians" and the "Danube of Thought" and vowed that reform would come to Romania "when pears grow on poplar trees".

Velvet Revolution

A bloodless revolution led by writers, actors, and students in Czechoslovakia which swept away communism.

Boris Yeltsin

A charismatic person and former mayor of Moscow, I rose to power in Russia as a liberal reformer challenging Gorbachev's authority and the very legitimacy of the Soviet state.

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