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110 terms

chemistry-carbs-lipids

i hate anatomy and have no time for it
STUDY
PLAY
Chemistry
the study of matter/change
macromolecules and change
build and break down/manipulate the form to get something-proteins, carbs, nucleic acids...
structure of matter
composition of the human body-anatomy
matter
has mass/volume
working of body's physiology
metabolism
chemical reactions break down and rebuild matter, creating and using energy
6 main elements in human body
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfer
CHNOPS
trace elements
copper, iron, zinc, potassium, calcium, sodium iodine, manganese
atom
make molecules-atoms build matter, smallest unit
atomic structure
don't confuse with cell
nucleus
proton(+) neutron(no charge)
subatomic particles
protons, neutrons, electrons,
protons
+, 1amu, nucleous
neutron
no charge, 1amu, nucleous
electron
-, "0" amu,
atomic symbol
letter represents kind of element
atomic number
number of protons
atomic mass
number of protons and neutrons
isotopes
different form of the atom; more neutrons; same number of protons
radio active isotopes-half life
half of how long an isotope lives
thyroid
iodine-131 is tracer- proper function of thyroid gland
heart
thallium-201-proper activity of heart
cancer
cobalt-60- typical cancer treatment drug
bone scan-radioactive tracer absorbed by bone
x-ray, x-ray darker(hot spot--over activity), x-ray lighter(cold spot--under activity), advantages
bone density
electron shells-"atomic happiness"
electron configuration, noble gases
covalent bond
sharing-strongest bond in the body
molecules
group of atoms bonded together by covalent bonds
single, double and triple bonds
2,4,6
ions
positively or negatively charge particle
+=feel good because it gave the electron; -=mean because it took the electron
ionic compounds
nonmetal to metal particle
hydrogen bond
temporary
polar covalent compounds
molecules joined together-unequal sharing of the electrons- hang out more towards one side of the atom
compound
2 or more atoms joined together
molecule
2 or more atoms joined by a covalent bond
molecular formula
C6H12O6
shows number and kinds of atoms
structural formula
shows bonds/structure/arrangement of atoms in space
synthesis
combine-make- build bonds
A+B=AB
condensation synthesis
reaction involved in synthesis- put together-release water
decomposition
break bonds
complex down to simpler pieces
heat is often a byproduct-energy released
AB--> A+B
hydrolysis
break apart-add water-give off energyand have simpler molecules
exchange reaction
AB + CD --> AD + BC
reversible reaction
forward/backward
stressing the stressor
A+B --> <-- AB
H2CO3 --> <-- H+HCO3
catalysts
start reaction-enzymes not consumed(reaction helpers)
acid
proton doner-higher pH=lower acidity
high [H+]; low [OH-]
[H+]
hydrogen ion concentration
examples of acids in body
HCL(stomach)
base
high[OH-]; low [H+]
examples of bases in body
no strong bases;sodium bicarbonate=weak base(8/9)
neutral acid/base
7
range
0-14
slightly basic
blood: pH 7.4
acidosis: pH 7.35 or below
diabetes blood-acidic
homeostasis of blood
alkalosis: pH 7.45 or above
body combat-basic
homeostasis of blood
carbonic acid
buffer blood-control of the ion concentration by removal or addition of ions
inorganic substances
no carbon
water
cohesive, adhesive, heat, solvent
cohesive
stick to itself: polar + and -
capillary action
adhesive
stick to something other than itself
capillary action
heat
high boiling pt. ability to absorb heat, high specific heat capacity
sweat-KE highest escape cooling the body
solvent
dissolves polar, ionic -- doesn't dissolve nonpolar
oxygen
nonorganic molecule-cellular respiration uses O2 to make ATP from glucose
CO2
waste product of cellular respiration-Krebs cycle
salts
electrolytes (inorganic ions)
gatorade
bicarbonate ion HCO3
acid/base buffer
calcium ion Ca+2
bones, blood clot muscle contraction
carbonate ion CO3-2
form bicarbonate, goes to blood
Choride ion Cl
water balance
Magnesium ion Mg+2
bones
phosphate ion PO4-3
make ATP, DNA, RNA, bones, membranes
potassium K+
sep charges; stable membrane
+on outside; - on inside
muscles nerve cells
sodium ion Na+
sodium potassium pump
sulfate ion- SO4-2
membrane, polarity, acid, base buffer
carbohydrates polymers
energy cells require-cellulose, starch
elements and ratio
contain atoms of 2 as many hydrogen to oxygen
use of carbs in body
build cellular parts-energy
monomer: monosaccharides
building blocks of more complex carbohydrates-repeating unit - simple sugars
glucose
straight chain of carbon atoms
fructose
ring structure
galactose
another example of monomers
disaccharides
2 simple sugars- building blocks
produced condensation synthesis
2 monomers added together
water-product
metabolic waste in forming disaccharides
degradation by hydrolysis
reverse condensation syn.
add water --> break bond
water - reactant
break bond in disaccharide
sucrose
sugar used in baking
lactose
milk sugar
polysaccharides
formed by many simple sugar units
glycogen
stored form of glucose in simple sugar unis
liver and muscles
always 0.01% in blood
diabetes urine dip test-test glucose in urine- too much in blood - pick other energy source
starch
stored form of glucose
hydrolyzed in humans
break down starch
eat complex carbs for energy
cellulose
structural form of glucose-build cell walls of plants
not hydrolyzed in humans-fiber
chitin
structural form of carb in insects exoskeleton, fungi cell walls
lipids
nonpolar-won't mix with water-equal sharing of electrons
elements
lots of carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen,fat
uses of lipids in body
store energy for cellular activities,insulation, steroid hormones, support and structure = cholestrol
triglycerides (fats)
gycerol unit-fatty acid
monomers in lipids
gycerol + 3 fatty acids
saturated fats
full of hydrogen
animals-cows, milk, butter- solid at room temp.
unsaturated fats
more double bonds-less hydrogen
plant-corn oil, canola oil -liquid at room temp.
trans fats
take unsaturated and give hydrogen ions
texture/perserving
phospholipids
contains glycerol portion + 2 fatty acid chains
found hydrophobic and hydrophilic cellular structures found in membranes
polar head and nonpolar tails
o~~ ~~o
builds wall
polar head
phosphate portion is soluable
polar-hydrophilic-likes water
non polar tails
fatty acid portion is insoluble in water
nonpolar = hydrophobic - is scared of water
steriods
four connected rings of carbon atoms
cholestrol backbone
all body cells:synthesize other steroids, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone =adrenal glands
hormones
chemical messangers derivanative of cholesterol
aldosterone:Na level in blood
help water balance
sex hormones
estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, galestrogen
saturated fats and cholesterol deposits in lining of blood vessels
lumin-->closing --> blood clot --> heart attack
familial hypercholesterolema
a lot of cholestrol is a disease - dominant