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Biology Chapter 12: DNA Technology and Genomics
Biology Concepts and Connections 7e - Chapter 12: DNA Technology and Genomics Vocabulary
Terms in this set (35)
The use of living organisms (often microbes) to perform useful tasks; today, usually involves DNA technology.
Methods used to study and/or manipulate DNA, including recombinant DNA technology.
A DNA molecule carrying genes derived from two or more sources.
The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
A small ring of independently replicating DNA separate from the main chromosome(s). Plasmids are found in prokaryotes and yeast.
The production of multiple copies of a gene.
In molecular biology, a piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or a viral genome, that is used to move genes from one cell to another.
An enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA strands; used in genetic engineering to paste a specific piece of DNA containing a gene of interest into a bacterial plasmid or other vector.
As a verb, to produce genetically identical copies of a cell, organism, or DNA molecule. As a noun, the collection of cells, organisms, or molecules resulting from cloning; also (colloquially), a single organism that is genetically identical to another because it arose from the cloning of a somatic cell.
A bacterial enzyme that cuts up foreign DNA (at specific restriction sites), thus protecting bacteria against intruding DNA from phages and other organisms. Restriction enzymes are used in DNA technology to cut DNA molecules in reproducible ways.
A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restriction enzyme.
Molecules of DNA produced from a longer DNA molecule cut up by a restriction enzyme; used in genome mapping and other applications.
A set of DNA segments representing an organism's entire genome; each segment is usually carried by a plasmid or phage.
An enzyme used by retroviruses that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template.
complementary DNA (cDNA)
A DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase. A cDNA molecule therefore corresponds to a gene but lacks the introns present in the DNA of the genome.
nucleic acid probe
In DNA technology, a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid molecule used to find a specific gene or other nucleotide sequence within a mass of DNA. The probe hydrogen-bonds to the complementary sequence in the targeted DNA.
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen used to stimulate a host organism's immune system to mount a long-term defense against the pathogen.
genetically modified (GM) organisms
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means. If the gene is from another species, the organism is also known as a transgenic organism.
A bacterial plasmid that induces tumors in plant cells that the bacterium infects; often used as a vector to introduce new genes into plant cells. Ti stands for tumor-inducing.
A treatment for a disease in which the patient's defective gene is supplemented or altered.
The scientific analysis of evidence for crime scene and other legal proceedings. Also referred to as forensic science.
A procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A technique used to obtain many copies of a DNA molecule or part of a DNA molecule. A small amount of DNA mixed with a heat-resistant DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides, and a few other ingredients replicates repeatedly in a test tube.
A short, artificially created, single-stranded DNA molecule that binds to each end of a target sequence to drive a PCR procedure.
A technique for separating and purifying macromolecules, either DNAs or proteins. A mixture of the macromolecules is placed on a gel between a positively charged electrode and a negatively charged one. Negative charges on the molecules are attracted to the positive electrode, and the molecules migrate toward that electrode. The molecules separate in the gel according to their rates of migration, which is mostly determined by their size.
Nucleotide sequences that are present in many copies in the DNA of a genome. The repeated sequences may be long or short and may be located next to each other (tandomly) or dispersed in the DNA.
A method of DNA profiling that involves the comparison of the lengths of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences selected from specific sites within the genome.
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
A variation in DNA sequence found within the genomes of at least 1% of a population.
restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
The differences in homologous DNA sequences that are reflected in different lengths of restriction fragments produced when the DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes.
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.
Human Genome Project (HGP)
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
The repetitive DNA at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome.
A transposable genetic element, or "jumping gene"; a segment of DNA that can move from one site to another within a cell and serve as an agent of genetic change.
whole-genome shotgun method
A method for determining the DNA sequence of an entire genome. After a genome is cut into small fragments, each fragment is sequenced and then placed in the proper order.
The study of whole sets of proteins and their interactions.
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