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Exam One: HCP
Terms in this set (91)
Which of following statements best captures the scope of cognition
- We use cognition when we transform, reduce, elaborate, store, recover and use the sensory input
When researchers use the introspection technique (eg. Wundt's school)?
- People report their experiences as accurately as possible but using the process of internal perception
Functinoalist psychology was developed by _________ and motivated by __________.
Which of the following schools was represented in the "Big Bang Theory" episode that we watched in class?
According to the Functionalists's Perspective
- We should change our thoughts/behaviors as we discover those that are "better adapted" to our enviroment
Which of the following research topics would be most likely to interest a behaviorist?
- The effect of speeding ticket on driver's choice on how fast to drive
Which of the followin students provides the most accurate summary of the behaviorists contributions to cognitive psychology
- Svetlana: "The most important contributions of the behaviorists were related to research methodology/experimental techniques and emphasis on operational definition
Which of the following was NOT a factor that contributed to the increasing popularity and rise of cognitive psychology?
- The realization that psychodynamic theory could not be stated in a behaviorist terminology
According to the Information Processing approach
- Mental processes can be interpreted as a flow of information in a series of stages
- Mental processes can be understoof by comparison with the operations of computer
All of the following statements about cognitive processes are correct EXCEPT
Out sensory perception (what our senses perceive)
Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?
- Dendrite ---> cell body ---> axon ---> Synapse
Based on the example used in class, which of the following neurotransmitters is affected by alcohol consumption?
Our ability to stannd on one leg (ex. yoga pose we did in class) is controlled in the
- Cerebellum, BELL = BALANCE
Which yoga pose am I referring to her?
Which of the following about hypothalamus is correct?
- It regulates the centers of the medulla and helps regulate teh endocrine system
Imagine that as a neurosurgeon. ypu have a patient (UNCC student) with damage to his/her hippocampus. What observable symtoms will your patient display?
- difficulty remembering spaital orientation of UNCC buildings
Which of the follow statements about the amygdala is correct?
- Linked to emotions such as fear
- Linked to recognition of emotions in others
- Part of the limbic system
= All of the above
What type cognitive activity does NOT involve the frontal lobe?
- Language comprehension
Unfortunately, Sam was buying a hot dog from a vendor at the baseball game whena. foul ball hit him in the head. After the hit, Sam seemed to have trouble producing answers to his friends' questions. Which lobe was most likely affected by the foul ball?
The VIDEO segment that was used to illustrate the effect of __________ featured a _____________
- Endorphins, swimmer
What sensory information is primarily used in the occiptal lobe
________ uses magnetic properties of the hemoglobin and records changes in oxygen atoms in the blood/tissues in the brain.
Which of the following students provides the best understanding of the PET scan techniques?
- Jamie: "The PET scan creates an image based on the radioactive chemical that travels through the bloodstream
Supposed that you know a woman who will be having an fMRI. She can except that
- A scanner will record amount of oxygen in blood
Correlation neuroimaging methods can be evaluated using four dimensions. Which of the following is NOt a dimension used in evaluating correlational neuroimaging methods?
- Functional resolution
The single-cell recording technique might be used if a researcher wanted to _______.
- Measure the nerve impulses from one neuron in the brain of a rat
Few features of electromagnetic energy make is useful for us to rely on light as a stimulus for vision. They include all of the following EXCEPT:
- It travels in unpredictable ways, thus producing a very accurate represenation of objects
Which of the following statements about light is NOT correct?
- Wavelength is decoded by the visual system as brightness: the longer the wavelength, the brighter the color
Which of the following statements about photoreceptor cells is/are correct?
- They are complex modules
- They can be altered by light of a particular energy
- They absorb light and transduce it into a neural impulse
- There is more than one type exist
= All of the above
Visual transduction is best described as:
- The process by which an electromagnetic energy becomes transformed into electrochemical/neural signals
The RETINA is an especially important layer of the eye due to which of the following?
- It contains the light-sensing receptor cells
- It is the site of visual transduction
- Light reflected from objects/persons forms an image here
= All of the above
While Rods ___________; Cones ________
- essential for night (black and white_ vision; essential color vision
The anlaogy which was used in class to illustrate how energy in light can alter the elctronic configuration of photoreceptors, involved which of the following?
- Crystal bell
Primary V1 (aka Striate) cortex is...
- First visual processing area
- Found in the occpital lobr
- Damage to it may result in blindsight condition
- All of the above
Ventral Pathway :: dorsal pathway (as). ___________
- what :: where
A person with akinetopsia would be most likely to
- Viewing the world as a snapshot
Which of the following statements about color blindness is/are correct?
- Caused by a defective gene that produces an abnormality in the photoreceptor system
Which of the following is considered to be the best current explanation of the visual condition called the "blindsight" ?
- Some information from the retina travels to the regions of the cortex outside the visual cortex
Which set below is in the proper order for visual processing of the information/information flow?
- Retina, Optic Nerve, LGN, V1
Which statement about attention is not correct?
- When attention is paid to two or more tasks, efficiency of processing is good enough for both
STIMULATED DRIVING STUDY: Recent experiments compared people using hand-held cell phone while driving, people who were using hands-free cell phone, and people who were not using the cell phone at all. Researchers found that
- Driving problems occur even when a person is listening or talking to another person while using a hands-free set
When experienced drivers tune the radio while driving:
- Their attentnion shifts away from the road for less than 3 seconds
Suppose your friend George wants to buy a hands-free cell phone to use when driving across the country/ Based on the informatino about attention and driving, you should tell George that, according to the current research, hands-free cell phone
- Are especially likely to influence attention when the traffic is heavy
Suppose that you are sitting in a resaurant, trying to focus on a comment from a student on your left, while a student on your right is talking to a friend. The situation resmebles the lab. setup known as...
- Dichotic Listening
The term "change blindness" referes to the observation that
- People fail to see that a object in a scene has changed
Dichotic Listening: What can we conclude about whether people process the unattended messages in a selective attention task?
- People can sometimes notice the meaning of the unattended message, depending on its relevance
The Stroop effect referes to the finding that people take longer to name
- A color of the ink in which a word is printed when the word's meaning conflicts with the ink's color
The Stroop effect is related to SELECTIVE attention because
- People are required to pay attention to the color of the word, not the name of the word
One explanation for the Stroop effect is that
- Interefernce effect: A more automatic process (e.g. reading a word) may interfere with a less automatic process (e.g. naming a color)
The "Multitasking" in-class activity included 2 tasks: Copying a phrase and a set of numbers. What were they?
- "Switchtasking is a thief"; 1-21
Based on the mini-video that we showed in class" Suppos that you are asked to count the number of passes between two teams. You are paying such close attention to the task that you fail to notice that "___________" walked onto the court.
- Moonwalking bear
The incident described above (#51) is an example of:
- Inattentional blindness
The phenomenon, characterized by the ability to notice if your name is mentioned in a nearby conversation is called
- Cocktail party effect
The moment when you are shifting your attentional focus and are unable to fully attend to a new target is called
- Attentional blink
What is perception?
- Result of both top-down and bottom-up processing
- Act of becoming aware of something through our senses
- Different for everyone
= All of the above
In order for me to demonstrate two main issues with our perception, you had to answer questions about which figure?
Which of the following statements about visual perception,object recgonition proecssing is correct?
- Result of interaction of physics, chemistry, and biology
- Beyond the eye, regions of the cortex/lobes are involved when we identify objects
- Both a & c
Hubel and Wiesel proposed a model of hierarchial organization of visual perception. Which of the following statements incorrectly describes this model?
- When gnostic (grandmother cells" dies, it gets replaced by another
According to the Gestalt psychology approach to perception of patterns/obkect recognition
- We first extract the template, and then later we extract stimulus
Suppose a psychologist loans you an art book and says the book includes some interesting ambiguous figure-ground pictures. You should expect to see
- A picture in which a specific region is the central figure one moment, but this region becomes the background the next
Which the face-vase illusion, it is impossible to see _________
face and vase simultaneously
You are looking at an advertisement, at first you think you're looking at a star, the next you realize the edges of the star are not actually shown on the paper, yet seem physically present. This illusion is an example of....
- A closure/illusory contour
Which of the following is the best example of a Geon?
- A 3D cylinder
The distinctive features theory of object/pattern recognition argues that
- Recognition involves detecting distrinctive and separable attributes of the object
Recognition of standardized stimuli, such as the human iris, can be accomplished by using an extremely simple:
- Template:matching process
The recognition-by-components theory argues that we recognize an object by
- Analyzing the arrangment of simple 3D shaoes that form the object
Which of the following objects is the best example of appropriate/efficent use of the TEMPLATE-MATCHING theory?
- Numbers at the bottom of a check
While __________ processing is guided by knowledge, beliefs, goals and expectations, _________ is the kind of processing that emphasizes how your sensory receptors register information
- Top-down & Bottom-up
As an example of one of your cognitive processing being active, you saw 2 vertical lines and 2 ovals alongside each of the lines on one of the PPP slides. Dr. David saw a _____________ as a result of the second type of cognitive proessing being active
- Bear climbing a tree
When you see someone you think is someone you know but ended up being their sibling, this error can be traced to
- Top-down processing
Many researchers argue that face perception is "special"; we process faces in a different way than we process other visual stimuli. According to this perspective,
- We recgonize faces in ters of their entire shape, rather than in terms of their isolated features
People recongize human faces relatively better than complex objects due to:
- Holistic processing
- Associated with fusiform area in the brain
- Has been important to human survival/social interactions
- Is inborn ability to appreciate the "faceness" of objects
= All of the above
A person with prosopagnosia:
- have trouble recognizing faces
Partici[ants in the last video about Prospagnosia were unable to recgonize which of the following:
- Up-side down faces
- A & B
Which of the followign actors was used in order to demonstrate a phenomenon that is a polar opposite of prosopagnosia?
- George Clooney
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation )TMS) is aka a temporary "virtual" brain lesion
The NS is the body's speedy, electrochemical communication that communicates through the chemical messengers known as hormones
The CNS consists of the skeletal/somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
The Parasympathetic NS helps us to get back to the homeostasis/balance while Sympathetic NS helps us prepare for "fight-and-flight" response
Accurate perception is the result of proper functioning of both the sensory organs and their associated neural pathways along with other parts of the brain
As long as person's eyes are not damaged, his/her visual perception is disrupted will be pretty accurate
When face is rotated upside down/rotated, hollistic perception is disrupted and we switch to the component information processing
The following sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse is correct (dendrite ---> axon ---> cell body ---> synapse
Wavelength is deocded by the visual system as brightness: the longer the wavelength, the brighter the color
FACE PROCESSING VIDEO: In addition to the face fusiform area, face processing areas included interotemporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus
- Transparent structure in the front of the eyes. Shape and thickness are most important for the formation of the retinal image
- Helps GATHER light & CONCENTRATE it to a single point of focus on the retina
For the brain to be aware of a physical object in the environment, that's object's retinal image must be transduced into an ________ impulse
The picture below represents the _______ theory/approach of visual perception/object recognition?
_______________ are indivudals who are able to recgonize faces even after many years have passed and/or faces changed due to aging
- Super Recognizers
As discussed in CLASS, please list TWO examples (e.g. challenges/conditions, professional areas) that are potentially affected by long term masks wearing it
- babies and children with autism
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