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Hum Dev Study Guides - Ex. 1, SG Hum Dev Ex.2, SG Hum Dev Exam 3, SG HumDev Exam 4, SG HumDev Exam 5

Terms in this set (1077)

Sensation: bottom-up processing, transduction. (p. 166 & lecture) Perception: top-down processing. Habituation, dishabituation & preferential looking or visual preference method. What did William James say about the infant's perceptual world? (see text p. 167) Define visual accommodation, acuity (p. 168). What is visual acuity at birth, at 1 month? (text & lecture) According to your text, when can they perceive a 'meaningful face'? (p. 170?) What are some properties of faces that infants like? (p. 170). Fantz's experiment on infant visual perception (video & text) - what did they prefer to look at? What level of complexity (p. 169-170 & lecture)? What is common motion, at what age can babies use it to help identify contour / figure (p. 169) (remember the Dalmatian dog video)? Figure/ground, contour, patterns. What is perceptual constancy? Size constancy (p. 171), Shape constancy? When do the following mature: brightness detection, color detection, visual acuity/accommodation, depth perception (see below)? What was included in the 2-3 month milestones (lecture & text)? Visual cliff experiments - when do babies perceive the visual cliff, when do they fear it? Who were the experimenters (p. 171)? Cross-modal matching (p. 182). According to Lambert & Drack, what time period is considered to be a 'critical period' in visual development? What can interfere with this development in newborns? (p. 178). Describe changes in vision with age; what happens to 'sensory thresholds'? Visual problems in old age - p. 190-194? Presbyopia w/ loss of accommodation. What were other factors that contribute to a decrease in vision? What is dark adaptation? How much decline is there in actual light reaching the retina? What are cataracts, glaucoma, ptosis? What is an age-related change in the retina that results in poor vision, esp. in the center of the visual field? Hearing acuity at birth - can babies hear before birth? Hearing changes in infancy. Hearing in adulthood and aging: presbycusis (truncated range hearing), tinitus. What are decibels (p. 186)? Speech perception issues p. 195. Olfactory capability at 1 wk. Taste & Smell - Does early experience affect later taste preference, what can newborns smell, what soothes them (p. 175-176)? What is a supertaster - p. 188? Describe the development of attention from infancy to adolescence (lecture, p. 183-186). Know selective attention, divided attention, sustained attention, executive attention, orienting, and vigilance
Memory & Information Processing Ch. 8 (p233-263)Who is Sue 2.0 & what is retrograde amnesia? Define memory (p 234). What are the 4 steps in 'information processing' (lecture & p. 234-235)? Define recognition vs. recall (know the ages on these -lecture & text p. 235) - which is better (i.e., allows us to remember more)? What is TOT? Reasons why young children's memory isn't as good as adults. What does 'dual-store' memory mean? Who first proposed it (lecture)? *Know the three components of & be able to draw the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory*(p. 234-236 & lecture). Know the types of memory in this model & specifics of each: sensory register (know iconic, echoic from lecture), short term memory (know characteristics, capacity, brain area). What was Baddeley's update of the model? Give working memory characteristics, name the parts and know what they do (episodic buffer, central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad). Can you give an example of a working memory task?) What is the age progression for digit span? . . . for recall vs recognition memory? What is meant by short term memory being a funnel, a filter and a processor (lecture)? Long term memory: what are the 2 types of long term memory discussed in text & lecture: conscious/explicit (declarative, semantic, episodic); unconscious/implicit (procedural, skills memory). What brain area is connected with each one (use lecture on this one! for implicit)? What is automatic processing - give 3 types.Be able to list & explain the 3 major encoding strategies and tell which ages usually spontaneously use them (lecture & p.243-244): rehearsal, chunking/organization, and elaboration. Define and understand rehearsal, overlearning, distributed practice. When do children spontaneously begin to use rehearsal? Organization/ chunking? (give types/examples) At what age do children spontaneously use organization? What is the effect of expertise or knowledge in a domain? What are mnemonics? Elaboration. What are ways you can 'elaborate' or add meaning? What is meaningful learning? Explain the testing effect (video link on Canvas). Elaboration is perfected in ____ (p. 250-251)? What are Anterograde and retrograde amnesia? Describe the progression of memory abilities over infancy & childhood (lecture). What are some improvements seen in adolescence? Who was Clive Wearing (music man -video)? - What does he have in common with HM (the person learned to drive the car but couldn't remember doing so, p. 236)?Know the ages/times in the Rovee-Collier kicking to move mobile experiment (lecture & p. 239-240). Meltzoff facial expression experiment & interpretations (p. 240 & lecture). What about deferred imitation (p.240-241); sequence imitation? What are some reasons given for improvements in memory over childhood (lecture & p. 242 & p. 245)? Which is more important: changes in long term or short-term memory (lecture & p. 242-243; this is a thought question!)? Define metamemory / metacognition (p. 244).Episodic memory: Autobiographical memory and infantile or childhood amnesia (p. 246-247). What is the autobiographical/reminiscence memory bump (lecture; p. 254-255)? What are Patricia Bauers 4 factors that influence whether of not we remember something (p. 254)? What explains memory declines in old age (lecture & p. 255-260)? Older adults have problems with what types of tasks? What taxes their working memory? What is 'source memory? What is prospective memory? What is external memory; give examples. (lecture)
13 y/o girl spent her childhood locked in a bedroom, was still wearing diapers when a social worker discovered the case two weeks ago, raised in isolation, "Genie" was a wild child, uncivilized, barely able to walk or talk, talks like infant
- was beaten for making noise.

- locked in a room and tied to a potty chair for most of her life, completely restrained, forced to sit alone day after day and often through the night, little to look at and no one to talk to for more than ten years
- hoping she still have a normal learning capacity.

- test: that a nurturing environment could make up for even the most nightmarish of pasts

- genie had a strange bunny walk and other almost inhuman characteristics. Genie constantly spat. She sniffed and clawed. She barely spoke or made any noises, reached out and grabbed lots of us

- intense way she explored her new environment, explore it tactilely, to put it up against her lips and feel it with her lips and touch it, almost as if she were blind
- solitary confinement is, diabolically, the most severe punishment, and in my experience, really quite dramatic symptoms develop in as little as fifteen minutes to an hour, and certainly inside of two or three days
-wired Genie to instruments that measured the electrical activity in her brain while she slept - unusually high number of so-called sleep spindles, the dense bunching patterns that look like spindles on a spinning machine, brain damaged from her years of abuse, or had she been retarded from birth?
- one day, when I'd left, her expression changed from happy to sad to indicate that there was some sadness in the separationm beginning to form this relationship.

- thought as long as she had the capacity to form attachments, she had the capacity to learn, she had the capacity to get better
- Genie seemed to be thriving. Her mental and physical growth since coming to Children's Hospital was obvious. Genie's progress gave birth to a daring hope. She might fully recover, and science might learn how. Her doctors even publically predicted success.
- Genie moved in. It was a new step for Genie, her first trial run in a foster home. Genie's passion for hoarding things, especially containers of liquid. Although there is no obvious explanation, this has been reported in other cases of children raised in isolation. Genie began living here after Butler said she had exposed Genie to German measles
- if you only care about helping Genie, then you wouldn't do a lot of the scientific research. So, what are you going to do? To make matters worse, the two roles, scientist and therapist, were combined in one person, in her case. So, I think future generations are going to study Genie's case, as we've been studying Victor's, not only for what it can teach us about human development, but also for what it can teach us about the rewards and the risks of conducting "the forbidden experiment."