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CH 1 KIN 491
Terms in this set (104)
The author explains that the purpose of the text is to help the reader understand the "deeper game" associated with sports. This "deeper game" refers to
C. Connections between sports and the larger social world.
Sociology helps us examine
B. social life in context.
People in the sociology of sport are mostly concerned with studying
A. the social worlds created in and around sports.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a concern among sociologists who study sports?
C. the motivation and personalities of athletes
According to the author, culture consists of
D. ways of life that people create as they live together
The author points out that sport cultures are
A. created as people in sports interact with each other.
Which of the following is not on the the 3 key concepts used in sociology?
B. Social conflict
Social structure consists of
B. established patterns of relationships and social arrangements.
According to the definition often used by people in North America, which of the following would be an example of a sport?
B. Racing in the Indianapolis 500
According to the definition often used by people in North American, sports is an activity that involves
B. physical challenges or competitive contests.
It is difficult to develop a single definition of sports because
D. the organization and meaning of sports vary by culture
When compared with past research in the sociology of sport, current research is more likely to focus on
B. physical culture in particular social worlds.
Official definitions of sports in the US emphasize
A. formally organized, competitive activities
Official definitions of sport have important implications because they identify the activities that
C. receive the most financial and political support.
Physical activity participation rates are most likely to be high in a society when the definition of sport focuses on
D. a wide range of physical activities that are pleasurable for participants.
Sports are social constructions. This means that they are
C. created by people as they interact with each other.
When sociologists say that sports are "contested activities", they mean that
D. people may struggle over what sports are and who should play them.
One of the most hotly contested aspects of sports in society is
A. who plays sports under what conditions.
Sport facilities and programs are most likely to be supported by government agencies and tax money when people see sports as
C. contributing to the common good.
According to the author, one of the problems with a single definition of sport is that it might lead some sociologists to
A. ignore people who lack the resources to formally organize their games.
The definition of sports in any particular context usually represents the ideas and interests of
B. some people more than others.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be studied by someone in the sociology of sport?
A. The physical demands associated with individual and team sports.
The great sport myth is based on the belief that
D. sport is essentially pure and good.
Widespread acceptance of the great sport myth leads people to
B. see little need to study sports from a critical perspective.
Using sociology of sport knowledge to produce positive outcomes is most likely when
C. it is combined with critical thinking.
After reading Sports in Society, the author hopes that people will
C. make informed choices about sports in their lives and their society.
When sociologists study sports in society, their recommendations are sometimes controversial because they may call for changes in the
B. structure and organization of sports and society.
When the sociology of sport is used to study sport participation among women, the primary focus would likely be on
C. women's access to the time and resources needed to play sports.
The author explains that a sociological approach to studying sports
A. will grow if it produces knowledge that is useful to many people.
Sports are logical topics for sociologists to study because
C. sports are such a pervasive part of many people's lives today.
The author explains that we should study sports as parts of the social world because sports are
A. closely connected with important ideas and meanings in social life.
Which of the following is a FALSE statement about ideologies?
B. Ideologies are stable and unchanging cultural perspectives.
When sociologists study ideologies, they focus on
B. webs of ideas and beliefs that people use to make sense of the world.
Gender ideology refers to
C. ideas and beliefs about masculinity and femininity.
Dominant gender ideology in most societies has traditionally emphasized that
A. female inferiority in sports is based in nature.
When a coach accuses male players of not playing well by saying that they "play like girls", his statement is most likely to motivate the players if they
B. accept dominant gender ideology.
When girls and women first challenged dominant gender ideology by entering the male world of sports, they were
D. demonized as abnormal and immoral
Racial ideology refers to
D. ideas and beliefs that people use to give meaning to skin color.
Social class ideology in the US is organized around
C. the idea income and wealth inequality is normal a belief in meritocracy.
Ableist ideology is used to
C. identify people as disabled.
Ideologies are different than the ideas and beliefs of individuals because they
B. influence the overall social organization of society.
The connections between ideologies and sports are
While discussing sports and major spheres of social life, the author notes that
B. new social media have changed the way fans consume sports.
When the authors says that the human body is social, this means that
D. meanings given to the body and body parts change over time.
When people in a society generally see the body as machine and sport as performance, it is likely that
B. athletes will use technology to control and manage their bodies.
The goal of sociology is to _____.
describe and explain social worlds
True or false: Social worlds include only intimate and personal groups.
Identify the concepts that represent the central interconnected aspects of all social worlds. (Check all that apply.)
According to definitions used widely in North America and much of Europe, _________________ are physical activities that involve challenges or competitive contests.
Research on physical culture is important because it helps one understand _____.
how people define and integrate movement into their lives
The study of the social worlds that people create, maintain, and change through their relationships with each other is known as:
The concept of social _____________ ____________ , refers to an identifiable sphere of everyday actions and relationships.
It consists of the established patterns of relationships and social arrangements that take shape as people live, work, and play with each other.
It consists of people taking each other into account and, in the process, influencing each other's feelings, thoughts, and actions.
It consists of the shared ways of life and shared understandings that people develop as they live together.
True or false: The organization, meaning, and purpose of sports remain the same in all cultural contexts.
This is false. The organization, meaning, and purpose of sports often vary from one cultural context to another. There is no single definition that precisely identifies sports in all cultures at all times.
The participation, funding, community support, and general visibility of an activity may increase when _____.
it is classified as an official sport
___________ ___________ includes all forms of movement and physical activities that people in particular social worlds create, sustain, and regularly include in their collective lives.
The official definitions of sport used by organizations and officials in the United States are more exclusive than the definitions used in some other countries in that they give priority to _____.
formally organized, competitive activities
Sociologists refer to __________ as a relatively self-sufficient collection of people who maintain a way of life in a particular territory.
Parts of the social world that are created by people as they interact with one another under particular social, political, and economic conditions are referred to as _____.
Identify the sport-related issues that must be considered when making decisions that affect the process of creating and sustaining sports in a social world. (Check all that apply.)
- What agencies or organizations will sponsor and control sports?
- Who will play sports with whom and under what conditions?
- What is the meaning and primary purpose of sports?
Those who participate in specific activities that qualify as sports often see themselves as _____.
Most research and writing in the field of sport sociology focuses on _____.
Most research and writing in the field of sport sociology focuses on _____.
What is most likely to happen when sport is defined to include a wide range of physical activities that are played for pleasure and integrated into local expressions of social life?
Physical activity rates will be high and overall health benefits are likely.
The sociology of sport tells one about the _____.
organization and dynamics of relationships in society
Understanding the sociology of sport is easier if one learns to think of sports as _____.
Disagreements and struggles over the purpose, meaning, and organization of sports occur most often when they involve _____.
the funding priorities of government agencies
The great sport myth is that _____.
the purity and goodness of sports is transferred to all who participate in it
Identify a true statement about the sociology of sport.
It studies sports as social phenomena.
Identify a true statement about the knowledge produced by research in the sociology of sport.
It explains why some sports have higher rates of violence than others and how to effectively control sports violence.
For those doing research in the sociology of sport, sport provides windows into the _____.
societies and cultures in which they exist
Research in the sociology of sport can be controversial when it provides evidence that _____.
changes are needed in the ways that sports and social worlds are organized
Studying sports with a critical eye usually occurs when _____.
researchers have informed visions of what sports and society could and should be in future
As organized sports have spread around the world, so has the myth that sport is _____.
essentially pure and good
True or false: Using knowledge in the sociology of sport is a simple process that automatically brings about equal and positive benefits for everyone.
This is false. Using knowledge in the sociology of sport is not a simple process that automatically brings about equal and positive benefits for everyone. It must also involve critical thinking about the potential consequences of what is known about sports in society.
People in positions of power prefer approaches to sports that blame problems on the weaknesses and failures of _____.
Identify a true statement about the effect of sports in the social world.
Sports create opportunities for conversations that enable people to form and nurture relationships.
_____ are presented as accurate and truthful representations of the world as it is or as influential people think it should be.
Good research in the sociology of sport always inspires critical approaches to the _____.
social conditions that affect human lives
Identify the central ideas and beliefs around which the most widely shared or dominant gender ideology used in many societies is organized. (Check all that apply.)
- Men are physically stronger and more rational than women.
- Heterosexuality is nature's foundation for human reproduction.
- Human beings are either female or male.
A local sports club in a city did not allow women to participate in sports that involve the demonstration of power and strength. The government decided to penalize the sports club based on this discrimination. This controversial norm of the club was based on _____ ideology.
Racial ideology in the United States developed fully after slavery came to an end. Identify the major beliefs around which this ideology was organized. (Check all that apply.)
- People classified as white have only white ancestors, and anyone with one or more black ancestors is classified as black.
- Intellectual and physiological characteristics vary by race.
- Human beings can be classified into races on the basis of biologically inherited or genetically based characteristics.
_________ ___________ refers to the social resources that link people positively to social worlds.
A school implements a policy that European American students should participate only in sports that require intellectual skills, such as chess, and African American students should participate only in sports that require physical skills, such as athletics. If the local government decides to take legal action against the school for discrimination, it will most likely be on the basis of _____ ideology.
Identify an accurate statement about ideologies.
One learns ideologies when one interacts with others and accepts ideas and beliefs that are generally taken for granted in one's culture.
In the context of social class ideology, _____ is a system where deserving people become successful and where failure is the result of inability, poor choices, or a lack of motivation.
____________ ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to define masculinity and femininity, identify people as male or female, evaluate forms of sexual expression, and determine the appropriate roles of men and women in society.
In the United States, thinking along the lines of social class ideology leads to the conclusion that _____.
wealth and power are earned by hardworking people of good character
A sports association follows gender ideology that is biased toward men in its decisions and beliefs. Which of the following decisions by the sports association reflects this gender ideology?
Women shall not be allowed to coach men's teams.
A sports magazine published an article on Olympic gold medalist Michael Johnson's life. The article spoke of Johnson's rise from his humble background to his stellar performances on the track. In the magazine, the author of the article used _____ ideology to describe Johnson's success.
_____ ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to classify human beings into categories assumed to be biological and related to attributes such as intelligence, temperament, and physical abilities.
_____ ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to identify people as physically or intellectually disabled, to justify treating them as inferior, and to organize social worlds and physical spaces without taking them into account.
The manager of a soccer team is accused of following racial ideologies in his decisions. Which of the following actions of the manager is evidence for the claim?
The manager included only members of Caucasian descent in his final first-team squad.
The government of a nation is known to follow ableist ideology in sports. Which of the following actions taken by such a government is part of ableist ideology?
The government sorts people as able-bodied or disabled.
_____ ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely shared and used by people to evaluate their material status; explain why economic success, failure, and inequalities exist; and what should be done about economic differences in a group or society.
Ableist ideology denies that abilities _____.
are situation- or task-specific
Although some people question the truth of the ideas and beliefs of class ideology, the class ideology that they support is heavily promoted and remains in existence because it _____.
serves the interests of people with power and wealth
A reason for using sociology to study sports is that they are _____.
clearly connected to major spheres of social life
A sports club evaluates the success of its members based on their annual earnings. The club believes that members who are at the lower end of the economic spectrum have the same opportunities as others but have failed to use these opportunities. The club's beliefs are based on _____ ideology.
Identify the major ideas and beliefs around which ableist ideology is organized. (Check all that apply.)
- People with a disability are inferior to and more needy than enabled people.
- All people can be classified as either enabled or disabled.
A school organizes a sports event for its students. It organizes separate events for students with physical disabilities. This action of the school is a reflection of _____ ideology.
Which of the following is a belief of ableist ideology?
There is no natural variation in the physical and intellectual abilities of a human being.q
Identify a true statement about the link of sports to major spheres of life in today's societies.
The media are closely connected with contemporary sports.
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