17 terms

Terms for Argumentation Quiz - Toulmin Logic

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Terms in this set (...)

Claim
the viewpoint or thesis that you want your readers or listeners to accept
Objective Claim
a claim that asserts that something actually exists and presents evidence that is factual (both scientifically and legally)
Subjective Claim
a claim that asserts that something should exist and presents evidence that comes down from ethical, aesthetic, or moral convictions
Reasons (Data) (Evidence)
the grounds or evidence for support of an argument
Grounds
the data or evidence for support of an argument
Legal Data
a type of data that originates from policies, laws, codes, regulations, etc.
Scientific Data
a type of data that originates from laboratory experiments (not forensic data, which is a subset of legal data), and mathematical calculations
Testimonial or Experimental Data
a type of data that originates from primary sources (i.e. eyewitness testimony and orations from anthropologists)
Scholarly or Documentary Data
a type of data that originates from secondary sources (i.e. scholarly journals in print or online)
Statistical Data
a type of data that originates from mathematical methods that are more often facts and figures that do not originate from laboratory experiments, such as opinion poll results
Warrant
a guarantee that the data are based upon some sensible or ethical foundation
Logical/Scientific Warrants
warrants that enforce and follow the logical progression of scientific reasoning
Ethical/Forensic-Based Warrants
warrants that relate to values or moral codes of conduct
Emotional/Artistic-Based Warrants
warrants that relate to feelings of (dis)satisfaction or aesthetics
Backing
an important part of an argument that is consists of support for the warrant of an argument; may be emotional, logical, or ethical
Rebuttal
the demonstration that a claim may not be valid in specific situations; a radical qualification
Qualifier
an exception to a claim under specific circumstances