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psych chp. 7

STUDY
PLAY
memory
process by which we recall past experiences and info, skills, general knowledge learned in the past
episodic memory
memory of a specific event
flashbulb memories
episodic memories that are recalled in great detail
semantic memory
your general knowledge
explicit memory
a memory of specific info that might be autobiographical or general knowledge
implicit memory
include practiced skills or learned habits
encoding
the translation of info into a form that can be used
visual codes
creating a mental picture
storage
2nd process of memory, maintenance of recorded info over a period of time
maintenance rehearsal
rote repition in order to keep from forgetting
does not connect memorized info to past learning
one drawback of maintenance rehearsal
semantic memory
stuff learned in school
encoding, storage and retrieval
computers and people both handle info using processes of
elaborative rehearsal
relating info to what you already know "deep processing"
retrieval
consists of locating stored info and returning it to conscious thought
context-dependent memories
memories that come back to you in certain places
state-dependent memories
memories that are retrieved because the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated
sensory memory
first stage of information storage, consists of immediate initial recording of data that enter through our senses
ionic memory
holds visual memories
eidetic imagery
the rare ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time
echoic memory
briefly holds mental traces of sounds
short term memory
holds information briefly before you store it in long-term memory- working memory
primacy effect
recalll the 1st in a series, works for several seconds
recency effect
the tendency to recall the last items in a series
chunking
the organization of items into familiar or manageable units
interference
occurs when new info appears in short term memory and takes the place of what was already there
schemas
transfers to long term memory/ wash/dryer speech
seven items
the average person in short term memory can hold a list of ____. Ebbinghaus
hypnosis
an eyewitness memory of a crime can be distorted by_
interference or decay
most people forget because of ___
recognition
easiest basic memory task
recognition, recall, relearning
basic memory tasks
about an hour we forget half
Herman Ebbinghaus studied that we try to reconstruct 7 nonsense syllables, we start forgetting....
painful, disturbing memories
according to Sigmuend Frued repression is due to...
repression
we forget things on purpose because they are disturbing
retrograde amnesia
forget the period leading up to a traumatic event
anterograde amnesia
person loses the ability to store new memories
infantile amnesia
forgetting of events leading up to age of 3
3 reasons why infants don't remember
hippocampus is not fully developed, they only care about now, language has not developed
elaborative rehearsal
we inquire deeper thought about the new info
mnemonic devices
combine chunks of format into a catchy or recognizable format
all of the above
a person trying to learn foreign language can use...