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process by which we recall past experiences and info, skills, general knowledge learned in the past

episodic memory

memory of a specific event

flashbulb memories

episodic memories that are recalled in great detail

semantic memory

your general knowledge

explicit memory

a memory of specific info that might be autobiographical or general knowledge

implicit memory

include practiced skills or learned habits


the translation of info into a form that can be used

visual codes

creating a mental picture


2nd process of memory, maintenance of recorded info over a period of time

maintenance rehearsal

rote repition in order to keep from forgetting

does not connect memorized info to past learning

one drawback of maintenance rehearsal

semantic memory

stuff learned in school

encoding, storage and retrieval

computers and people both handle info using processes of

elaborative rehearsal

relating info to what you already know "deep processing"


consists of locating stored info and returning it to conscious thought

context-dependent memories

memories that come back to you in certain places

state-dependent memories

memories that are retrieved because the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated

sensory memory

first stage of information storage, consists of immediate initial recording of data that enter through our senses

ionic memory

holds visual memories

eidetic imagery

the rare ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time

echoic memory

briefly holds mental traces of sounds

short term memory

holds information briefly before you store it in long-term memory- working memory

primacy effect

recalll the 1st in a series, works for several seconds

recency effect

the tendency to recall the last items in a series


the organization of items into familiar or manageable units


occurs when new info appears in short term memory and takes the place of what was already there


transfers to long term memory/ wash/dryer speech

seven items

the average person in short term memory can hold a list of ____. Ebbinghaus


an eyewitness memory of a crime can be distorted by_

interference or decay

most people forget because of ___


easiest basic memory task

recognition, recall, relearning

basic memory tasks

about an hour we forget half

Herman Ebbinghaus studied that we try to reconstruct 7 nonsense syllables, we start forgetting....

painful, disturbing memories

according to Sigmuend Frued repression is due to...


we forget things on purpose because they are disturbing

retrograde amnesia

forget the period leading up to a traumatic event

anterograde amnesia

person loses the ability to store new memories

infantile amnesia

forgetting of events leading up to age of 3

3 reasons why infants don't remember

hippocampus is not fully developed, they only care about now, language has not developed

elaborative rehearsal

we inquire deeper thought about the new info

mnemonic devices

combine chunks of format into a catchy or recognizable format

all of the above

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