NR 9 Final

what is a natural community?
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order of the other eventsglaciers - Lake VT - Champlain Sea - Lake ChamplainWhat is glacial till? How is it formedUnsorted mixture of all different sediment sizes, boulders, rocks, gravel, sand, silt, clay - carried beneath a glacier and dropped off as glacier recedesHow were Lake Vermont and the Champlain Sea created? At what elevation was the surface of each?Glacial Lake Vermont - glacier retreated past vermont 13,500 years ago, elevation of the Lake surface is 620 ft above sea level Champlain Sea- 12,000 years ago ice dam failed and water level fell 300 ft, Champlain Sea surface 320ftWhat surface material would you find beneath the top layers of soil at the following elevations (assuming you are in the Champlain Valley): 620 feet above sea level, 320 feet, 100 feet, 795 feet, 400 feet ?620ft: Sand 320ft: Sand 100ft: Silt and Clay 795ft: Glacial till 400ft: Silt and clayWhat is horizontal sorting? What does this have to do with sediment deposited during Lake Vermont and the Champlain Sea?Sediments are deposited based on density, size and shape Sediment, such as silt and clay, was deposited further from the shoreline of Lake Vermont's and Champlain Sea compared to sandWhat is isostatic depression and rebound? How does this connect to the Champlain Sea?Isostatic rebound: Earth's land recovers in response to the removal of weight Isostatic depression: Earth's land sinks in response to weight on the crust. Applicable? Crust depresses and recovers in response to the weight of the Larrendale Ice SheetDefine regolithStone blanket of unconsolidated rock and organic material overlying bedrocksoilPart of regolith that is modified by chemical weathering and biological activityparent materialMaterial that weathers to create soilsoil horizonsO: organic matter, dark brown color A: minerals and organic matter, gray color E: physical removal of mineral grains and organic matter, quartz B: minerals and very little organic matter, rusty red color C: parent material, slightly weathered bedrockHow do soils form from bedrock? Glacial till? What about from sediment (e.g. clay or sand) from Lake Vermont or the Champlain Sea?Weathering and erosion or breaking down bedrock to form a soil suitable for plant species. Organic matter forms continuous breaking down of plant matter. Addition of soil horizons over timeWhat changes occurred between the Paleoindian and Archaic period in Vermont? Why did these changes occur? What impacts did all this have on people who lived in this area?Natural case of global warming, the landscape changed from an arctic tundra to a more deciduous forest, Human's food resources changed from larger to smaller animals that were better fit for the new environment. Creation of the "swanton point", effective for small gameWhat happened during the period of "first contact" and the fur trade? How did these interactions influence some Abenaki's relationships with nature? Include details or examples.French built forts, didn't deeply colonize or develop a large portion of the land, Native American population was reduced almost 90%, conflict, disease, Native Americans provided pelts in exchange for European goods. Incentivized Native Americans to kill more fur bearing animals than usual, beaver population decreased dramaticallyWhat are the four "I's of oppression? Choose a specific European writing, policy, or action during the period of colonization and explain how it exemplifies one or more of these structures of oppression.Ideological, Internalized, Interpersonal, InstitutionalWhat caused the big influx of English settlers arriving in Vermont? When did this happen?The British won the French and Indian War against the French in 1760. The British realized an opportunity for expansion. Wood of white pine used for the mast of Royal Navy shipsExplain the concepts of "firsting" and "lasting". Give an example to show how this applies to Abenaki historyFirsting: The single story idea that europeans were the first the first to occupy or founders of a place despite natives previous presence Lasting: The single story idea that Native Americans no longer exist and have been wiped out entirelyWhat happened during the Capitalist Ecological Revolution in Vermont?Farmers began to focus on growing or raising one thing Farms got larger, bought out smaller ones, farmers no longer farmed for subsistenceWhat were the driving forces behind this revolution? Include some details, and focus especially on the impacts of railroads.Railroads came to the Vermont in 1848, connected Vermont to the regional, national, and international economy, Merino sheep, effectively raised where no other crops can grow, wool can to be transportedWhat were some impacts of this revolution? Consider specifics of land clearing, species abundance, and social changes.Stimulated growth in lumber, dairy, and mining industries; hurt local small scale manufacturing (can't compete with larger market, cheaper goods) Land cleared for sheep, less forested habitat for wildlife (decline in deer populations) Towns close to railroads grew; hill towns declinedWhat major conservation milestones occurred in Vermont in the late 1800s and early 1900s? What caused this newfound conservation/environmentalism?Vermont Fish Commission became the Vermont Fish and Game commission, further regulating a wider variety of fish and wildlife harvest. Romantic environmental paradigm, brings attention to the destructive habits of humans, calls for a coexistence between humans and wildlifeWhat were the major farming and population trends in the late 1800s? What caused them? Include data/evidence.Human population continues to steadily grow, population remains constant at 1880, sheep population decreases dramatically, Vermont farmers competed with the farms of Midwest (better soils, larger in size, more space), Majority of towns were decreasing in population, people moved to larger citiesWhat happened to the logging industry in Vermont in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Why? What impacts did these changes have?Largest industry in Vermont after the civil war. High interest in wood products, necessary components for the expansion of railroads. - Increase in erosion, decrease in woodland species, drying of soilsWhat happened to the dairy industry in Vermont in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Why? What impacts did these changes have?Dairy industry increases due to the expansion of railroads and new refrigeration technology along for long distance sales of a high demand product Impacts: Commercialization of dairy, concentration of dairy farms in productive areas (Champlain Valley), further specialization of one productWhat happened to the mining industry in Vermont in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Which stones were most popular? Why did the mining industry grow at this time? What impacts did these changes have?Vermont competed as one of the largest Slate, Marble, and Granite producers in the country. Railroads made it possible to ship products to distant markets (boston, New York) - Dust washed into rivers, killing fish, plants, and aquatic insectsWhat were popular forms of tourism in Vermont in the early 1900s? Why did tourism become more popular? What impacts did it have?Skiing and hiking, advertisement and car ownership of cars promote travel, economic growth, not all towns benefited equally. Rise in tourism connected to conservation effort (protecting scenery)What happened to Vermont's population starting in the 1960s? Why did this happen?Population increased 50% from 1960-1990, interstates (made VT more accessible for travel) and ski areas (reasoning for second homes + inhibitors), back to the land movementWhat big trends occurred in dairy farming during the 20th century? What caused these changes?Number of dairy farms decreased due to strict and expensive sanity regulations. Productivity increased due to bulk tanks. Farms consolidated based upon who could afford to mechanizeHow do land trusts work and what role did they place in preserving land in Vermont in the late 1900s?An agreement to hold or designate property for the benefit of another group (conservation) - VT Land Trust purchased developmental rights to protect farms and forest; has conserved more than ½ mil acresWhat is habitat fragmentation? Describe some possible impacts of fragmentation.The modification of the landscape from an assortment of human disturbances (agriculture, roadways) changes the borders and edges of habitats. Possible impacts: Reduces the productivity, suitable habitat, and biodiversity of the surrounding area)What are some ways forest edges can be different from forest interiors? How might this impact some species? Give at least one specific exampleForest interiors allow for easier, safer mobility of wildlife, edgesWhat are focal species? Define each of the four types of focal species, give an example for each, and describe how each is used by conservation groups to promote healthy ecosystems.Focal species: Organisms used in planning and managing nature reserves because their requirements for survival represent factors important for maintaining ecological health conditions. Umbrella species: Species generally covers large areas in daily/seasonal movements. Ex. Wolves Indicator species: Tightly linked to specific biological elements, processes, or qualities - sensitive to ecological conditions. Ex. Frogs (clear water needed to use pores in skin) Flagship species: Wide appeal and thus draw attention to a conservation objective. Ex. Sea turtles and Giant Pandas Keystones: Species, groups of species, habitats, or abiotic factors that play a pivotal role in ecosystem processesWhat is the difference between a matrix and a patch ecosystem? Give an example of each. Why are these relevant in deciding which land to conserve?Matrix - Northern hardwood forest, the background ecosystem or land-use type in a mosaic, characterized by extensive cover, high connectivity, and/or major control over dynamic Patch - Summit and hilltops, cliff, area that differs from its surroundingsWhat factors do conservation organizations use to decide how to prioritize similar ecosystems?Maintaining species diversity, size of the occurrence, landscape context; amount of development nearby, condition