AP Modern World History

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Terms in this set (884)
Continuing the imperial revival started by the Sui Dynasty this dynasty that followed restored the Chinese imperial impulse four centuries after the decline of the Han, extending control along the silk route. Trade flourished and China finally reached its western limits when its forces were defeated by the imperial armies of the Muslim Abbasid Empire at the Talas River--which stopped future expansion by both empires.
Urbanizationthe movement of people to Urban areas in search of work.Tao-te Chingthe central text of Daoism.UmmahThe collective community of Islamic peoples, which is thought to transcend ethnic and political boundaries.Yurta portable dwelling used by the nomadic people of Centa Asia such as Mongols, consisting of a tentlike structure of skin, felt or hand-woven textiles arranged over wooden poles.SafavidThe Safavid Empire that ruled Persia (Iran) between 1502-1736.SyncretismThe unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.SikhA member of a religious community founded in the Punjab region of India. Developed in the 15th century. They believe in One Immortal Being and the teachings of ten Gurus, starting with Guru Nanak.Divine Right of KingsDoctrine that states that the right of ruling comes from God and not people's consentGlorious RevolutionFollowing the English Civil War, this event involve the British Parliament once again overthrowing their monarch in 1688-1689. James II was expelled and William and Mary were made king and queen. Marks the point at which Parliament made the monarchy powerless, gave themselves all the power, and wrote a bill of Rights. The whole thing was relatively peaceful and thus glorious.King Charles IThe English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans (see English Civil War) who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (1650s).Tennis Court OathA pledge signed by all but one of the members of the Third Estate in France. Marks the first time the French formally opposed Louis XVI.BourgeoisieA social class that derives social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners or feudal privileges. It's a term for the middle class common in the 19th century. It's characterized by their ownership of property and their related culture.John Locke17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.ShakespeareA popular English playwright and poet in the 16th century.95 ThesesIt was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.IndulgenceWithin the Catholic Church, this is the remission punishment for ones sins. Such as for a sin that has already been forgiven by God but which still carries with it some kind of punishment. Centuries ago the Church would sell certificates that would get a person out of purgatory. This practice contributed to the Protestant reformation.Bartholomew DiasPortuguese navigator that discovered the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Afica.CortesThe Spanish conqueror of Mexico.EnconmiendaA labor system set up by the Spanish government where Spanish colonists could work the native Americans on their land while compensating them and agreeing to educate some of them and teach them about Christianity. The system was meant to curb exploitation but actually made the exploitation of Native Americans worse.MitaWhen colonists were allowed to use Indians for forced labor in colonial South America as a form of taxation. The Inca had previously used a similar practice.Laissez FaireThe belief that the government shouldn't intervene much in the economy and should instead let the people do what they want with their property. by Adam SmithCapitalismEconomic system with private and corporate ownership of property and competitive markets. However, since its origins in the 18th and 19th century it was also often correlated to large-scale collusion between governments and private industries such as through establishing royal charters, copyrights and patents, corporate law, and eventually even subsidies of taxpayer money to private industries.Nation-StateA modern concept of a government that controls an area and represents the people of that area, often idealized as a homogeneous people that share a common language and feeling of nationality.Leonardo da VinciA well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.HuguenotFrench Protestants who endured severe persecution in the 1600-1700.ShogunIn feudal Japan, a noble similar to a duke. They were the military commanders and the actual rulers of Japan for many centuries while the Emperor was a powerless spiritual figure.SamuraiA member of the warrior class in premodern feudal JapanAborigineThe general named often used to describe the original inhabitants of Australia.JanissaryElite fighting force in the Ottoman army made up of slaves.Dar al-IslamA term used by Muslims to refer to those countries where Muslims can practice their religion freely.JamestownThe first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East VirginiaColombian ExchangeThe trading of various animals, diseases, and crops between the Eastern and Western hemispheresTrianglular TradeFrom the 16th to 19th centuries, the flow of goods between the Americas, Europe in Africa is often described with what geometric shape?ColonizationThe expansion of countries into other countries where they establish settlements and control the native people and colonistsCreoleDescendants of the Europeans in Latin America, usually implies an upper class status.Porfirio DiazDictator in Mexico from 1876 to 1911. Overthrown by the Mexican Revolution of 1910.Emiliano ZapataRevolutionary Leader in Mexico during the Mexican Revolution who originated from the lower classes and was especially appealing to the peasants because he wanted to take land from the haciendas (rich) and return it to them. Ended up assassinatedYoung TurksA coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era.Franz FerdinandArchduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. A major catalyst for WWI.LusitaniaBritish passenger ship holding Americans that sunk off the coast of Ireland in 1915 by German U-Boats killing 1,198 people. It was decisive in turning public favor against Germany and bringing America into WWI.Zimmerman telegramThis was sent by Germans to encourage a Mexican attack against the United States. Intercepted by the US in 1917.Franklin D. RooseveltPresident of the United States during most of the Depression and most of World War II.Civilian Conservation CorpsA major public works program in the United States during the Great Depression.TotalitarianismGovernment ruled by a single party and/or person that exerts unlimited control over its citizen's lives.SudetenlandLand that Germany thought was rightfully theirs due to the large German speaking populationProxy warA war instigated by a major power that does not itself participateKhmer EmpireAggressive empire in Cambodia and Laos that collapsed in the 1400's when Thailand conquered CambodiaMaoriNew Zealand indigenous culture established around 800 CEPax MongolicaThe period of approximately 150 years of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire.Henry The NavigatorThis Portuguese prince who lead an extensive effort to promote seafaring expertise in the 14th century. Sent many expedition to the coast of West Africa in the 15th century, leading Portugal to discover a route around Africa, ultimately to India.AfrikanersSouth Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.AkbarMost illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India ( 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of peacemaking with Hindus.AlexandriaCity on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemy. It contained the famous Library and the Museum and was a center for leading scientific and literary figures in the classical and postclassical eras.All-India Muslim LeaguePolitical organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded the partition of a Muslim Pakistan.AsanteAfrican kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. A major participant in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain.AtlanticAfter 1500, world economic activity gradually began to shift toward this body of water, contributing to the rise of Western European colonialism and economic dominance in the world.AztecsAlso known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.Bartolome de Las CasasFirst bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.BeijingChina's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People's Republic of China.Bartolomeu DiasPortuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.BengalRegion of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century. Today this region includes part of Eastern India and all of Bangladesh.Benjamin FranklinAmerican intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.Bhagavad-GitaThe most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.Black DeathThe common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.BolsheviksRadical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. They eventually seized power in Russia in 1917.CaliphateIslamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.CaravelA small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.Catholic ReformationReligious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.Champa RiceQuick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state (as part of the tributary system.)Charles DarwinEnglish naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.ChinampasRaised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.City stateA small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.ColonialismPolicy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benefit of the colonial power.ConquistadorsEarly-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)Constitutional ConventionMeeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.ConstitutionalismThe theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.CossacksPeoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.Cottage industryWeaving, sewing, carving, and other small-scale industries that can be done in the home. The laborers, frequently women, are usually independent. Most manufacturing was done this way before the industrial revolution.CottonThe plant that produces fibers from which many textiles are woven. Native to India, it spread throughout Asia and then to the New World. It has been a major cash crop in various places, including early Islamic Iran, Yi Korea, Egypt, and the USCreolesIn colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.Crystal PalaceBuilding erected in London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.Cultural imperialismDomination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy that encourages cultural assimilation of neighboring foreign peoples or by economic or technological superiority.CuneiformA system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia.Dalai LamaOriginally, a title meaning 'universal priest' that the Mongol khans invented and bestowed on a Tibetan lama (priest) in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet. Subsequently, the title of the religious and political leader of Tibet.DaoismChinese religion that believes the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from 'the way' or 'path' of nature.Darius IThird ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.Declaration of the Rights of ManStatement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.DeforestationThe removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.Democracysystem of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. Demographic Transition,A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)DriverA privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation.Economic sanctionsBoycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies.TelegraphA device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s.Emilio AguinaldoLeader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.Emperor MenelikEmperor of Ethiopia (1889-1911). He enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa (1896).Empress Dowager CixiEmpress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements like the so-called Boxers, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.EnlightenmentA philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.Estates GeneralThe traditional group of representatives from the three Estates of French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. Louis XVI assembled this group to deal with the financial crisis in France at the time, but the 3rd estate demanded more rights and representation.EthiopiaEast African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.Ethnic cleansingEffort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. It was used for example by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia.European CommunityAn organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993.ExtraterritorialityForeign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right.Fascist PartyItalian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943.Ferdinand MagellanPortuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.Solomon's TempleA monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues.Five Year PlansPlans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.Forbidden CityThe walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between 1121 and 1924. A portion is now a residence for leaders of the People's Republic of China.Pancho VillaA popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.Toussaint L'OuvertureLeader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.Fransisco PizarroSpanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533.NeocolonialismEconomic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, this new form of economic imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics.FrescoA technique of painting on walls covered with moist plaster. It was used to decorate Minoan and Mycenaean palaces and Roman villas, and became an important medium during the Italian Renaissance.George WashingtonMilitary commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).GhanaFirst known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Known for it's cold exports.Gold CoastRegion of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe from the 1470s onward.Golden HordeMongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.Gothic CathedralsLarge churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.Grand CanalThe 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.Great CircuitThe network of Atlantic Ocean trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.Great SchismA division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)Great ZimbabweCity, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.GuildIn medieval Europe, an association of men, such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and created an organized institution to promote their economic and political interests.GunpowderMade in China originally to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. Spread to Europe in 1500s.GuomindangNationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.Gupta EmpirePowerful Indian state based in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture. Often associated with a Golden Age of classical India. Fell to the Huns.HabsburgA powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.HadithA tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.Hanseatic LeagueAn economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.Hebrew BibleA collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the early Hebrew people. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E.HinduismTerm for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. It has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices.Holy Roman EmpireLoose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor who had little control over the hundreds of princes who elected him. It lasted from 962 to 1806.House of BurgessesElected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618.Hundred Years WarSeries of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.Ibn BattutaMoroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.Ibn KhaldunArab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city.IncaLargest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.Indian National CongressA movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.Indian OceanThis area possessed the biggest network of sea-based trade in the postclassical period prior to the rise of Atlantic-based trade.Industrial RevolutionThe transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communicationsInvestiturecontroversy Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.Iroquois ConfederacyAn alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.IslamReligion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran.JacobinsRuthless radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. Associated with the Reign of Terror.James Wattinvented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.JanissariesInfantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.JesuitsMembers of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.JesusA Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. He is the basis of the world's largest religion.Joesph StalinRuled the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953. Ruled with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.joint-stock companyA business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.Jose MorelosMexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814.KamikazeThe 'divine wind,' which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281.KarmaIn Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a 'spirit' and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle. Used in India to make people happy with their lot in life.KhipuSystem of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. These knots are interesting because the Inca are notable for being a relatively sophisticated empire and civilization, but they had no written language (very unusual). Some have gone so far as to suggest that these knots were themselves a language, but this probably isn't true.Kievan RussiaGovernment established at Kiev in Ukraine around 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.Khubilai KhanLast of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294). Ruled the Mongol Empire from China and was the founder of the Yuan Empire in China after defeating what was left of the Song Dynasty.King Leopold IIKing of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the infamous ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).Labor unionAn organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.laissez faireThe idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776).League of NationsInternational organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.LegalismIn China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.LiberalismA political ideology that emphasizes rule of law, representative democracy, rights of citizens, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.Little Ice AgeA century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.loessFine yellowish light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because of the tiny needle-like shape of its particles, it can be easily shaped and used for underground structures (but vulnerable to earthquake)ma'atEgyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order.Macartney MissionThe unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire in 1793.MahabharataA vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. Mahayana Buddhism,Branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.MalayA designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malaysian Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)MaliEmpire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.MamluksUnder the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)ManchuriaRegion of Northeast Asia North of Korea.ManchusNortheast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.Mandate of HeavenChinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.Mandate SystemAllocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. Used especially in reference to the Western European possession of the Middle East after WWI.manorIn medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.Mansa MusaRuler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.manumissionA grant of legal freedom to an individual slave.Mao ZedongLeader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945).mass deportationRemoval of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires.mass productionThe manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many smallMauryan EmpireThe first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes.Max PlanckGerman physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.Maximillien RobespierreYoung provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. See Jacobins.MayaMesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.MeccaCity in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.mechanizationThe application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England. (p. 603)medievalLiterally 'middle age,' a term that historians of Europe use for the period between roughly 500 and 1400, signifying the period between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance.MedinaCity in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.MemphisThe capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids.mercantilismEuropean government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland countryNubiansThe people in Eastern Africa south of Egypt who were rivals of the ancient Egyptians and known for their flourishing kingdom between the 400s BC and the 400s CE. They speak their own language and were known by the Egyptians for their darker skin.mestizoThe term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed native American and European descent.Middle PassageThe part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.MingChinese dynasty that followed the overthrow of the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in China. Among other things, the emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. It was mostly a time of vibrant economic productivity. It is regarded as the last great Chinese dynasty (1368-1644). In 1644 they fall to Manchurian (Qing Dynasty) from the North who who rule China until the Nationalist revolution in 1911.MinoanProsperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. Exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.mitaAndean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.Montezuma IIThe last Aztec emperor. Here he is on vacation at the beach, just days before being captured and killed by Cortés in 1520.modernizationThe process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.Mohandas GandhiLeader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920.Mohenjo-DaroLargest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning.mokshaThe Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.monasticismLiving in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Primary Centers of Learning in Medieval Europe)MongolsA people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.monotheismBelief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam.monsoonThese strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.movable typeType in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters and other characters on a page. Invented in Korea 13th Century.Mughal EmpireMuslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.MuhammadArab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.Muhammad AliLeader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.Muhammad Ali JinnahIndian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political RightsmulattoThe term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.MuscovyThe Russian feudal duchy that emerged as a local power gradually during the era of Mongol domination. The Muscovite princes convinced their Mongol Tatar overlords to let them collect all the tribute gold from the other Russian princes on behalf of the Mongols. This caused Moscow to become the power center of Russian society and eventually they rebelled against Mongol domination.The Muscovite dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276 to 1598.MuslimAn adherent of the Islamic religion.MycenaeSite of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy.Napoleon BonaparteOverthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.Nasir al-Din TusiPersian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.National AssemblyFrench Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. nationalism,Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western EuropeNeo-Assyrian EmpireA major Mesopotamian empire between 934-608 BCE. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. They were an iron-age resurgence of a previous bronze age empire.NeolithicThe period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution. It follows the Paleolithic period.New ImperialismHistorians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.nomadA person who lives a way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.nonalignedDuring the Cold War, countries who did not want to support either side sometimes declared themselves to be.Nongovernmental OrganizationsNonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999).nuclear nonproliferationGoal of international efforts to prevent countries other than the five declared nuclear powers (United States, Russia, Britain, France, and China) from obtaining nuclear weapons. The first Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968.OlmecThe first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.Opium WarsWars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.Otto von BismarckChancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German EmpireOttomansTurkish empire based in Anatolia. Arrived in the same wave of Turkish migrations as the Seljuks.PaleolithicThe period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.Panama CanalShip canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915.papacyThe central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)papyrusA reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.ParthiansIranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E.Apostle PaulA Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, according to Christian belief, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, he became arguably the most significant figure in the spread of Christianity and the shaping of its doctrine.pax romanaThe period of stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas.Pearl HarborNaval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II.Peloponnesian WarWar between Athens and Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism in the Aegean region. It went on for over 20 years. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed but both were weakened sufficient to be soon conquered by Macedonians, later leading to the Hellenistic Empire and Alexander the Great.PerestroikaRussian term for the political and economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system.PericlesAristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens.PersepolisA complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homelanPersian WarsConflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire in the 400s BCE. Essentially Perisa--biggest empire in the world at the time--invaded Greece twice with an overwhelming force and lost both times. It contributed heavily to the rise of Athens as a mini-empire and the "golden age" of Athenian culture.Peter the Great(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to his new city of St. Petersburg.pilgrimageJourney to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim journey to Mecca.PilgrimsGroup of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.postmodernismPost-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture.printing pressA mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.Protestant ReformationReligious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It spit the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Churches, among many others.proxy warsDuring the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants.PuritansEnglish Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.QinA people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first short-lived Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). Their ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved his subjects.Qing EmpireEmpire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times they also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last emperor of this dynasty was overthrown in 1911 by nationalists.QuranBook composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.railroadsNetworks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. The first were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused the construction of these to boom lasting into the 20th CenturyKshatriyaThe Hindu warrior caste.Ramesses IIA long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a military standoff. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.ReconquistaBeginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.Italian RenaissanceA period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600Revolutions of 1848Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe during a time after the Congress of Vienna when conservative monarchs were trying to maintain their power. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.Richard ArkwrightEnglish inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the first Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.RomanizationThe process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it.Royal African CompanyA trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (p. 507)Saddam HusseinPresident of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.Safavid EmpireTurkish-ruled Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.SahelBelt south of the Sahara where it transitions into savanna across central Africa. It means literally 'coastland' in Arabic.Salvador AllendeThe first Marxist politician elected president in the Americas. He was elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by a US-backed military coup in 1973.samuraiLiterally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite in Feudal Japan as well as during the Tokugawa Shogunate.SandinistasMembers of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. They lost national elections in 1990.Sasanid EmpireThe last of pre-Islamic Persian Empire, from 224 to 651 CE. One of the two main powers in Western Asia and Europe alongside the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 yearsscholasticismA philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.Scientific RevolutionThe intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.scramble for AfricaSudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.SemiticFamily of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the this language family is Arabic.Separate SpheresNineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politicssepoyA soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British.Sepoy MutinyThe revolt against the British by many different groups across India 1857 but led particularly by some of the disgruntled Indian soldiers working for the British. It caused the British government to take over more direct control of India from the British East India Company.SerbiaThe Ottoman province in the Balkans that rose up against Janissary control in the early 1800s. Terrorists from here triggered WWI. After World War II it became the central province of Yugoslavia.serfIn medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some of them worked as artisans and in factories; in Russia it was not abolished until 1861.Shah Abbas IShah of Iran (r. 1587-1629). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. (p. 533)shamanismThe practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia. (p. 292)ShangThe dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of this culture.Shi HuangdiFounder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization.Shi'aBranch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Mainly found in Iran and a small part of Iraq. It is the state religion of Iran. A member of this group is called a Shi'ite.SiberiaThe northeastern sector of Asia or the Eastern half of Russia.SikhismIndian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, warriors from this group mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule.Silk RoadCaravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.Simon BolivarThe most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.socialistAn general ideological term for a person who advocates equality, protection of workers from exploitation by property owners, and often community or worker ownership of major industries. This ideology led to the founding of certain labor parties in the late 1800s.Sokoto Caliphatelarge Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria.Song DynastyEmpire in southern China (1127-1279) while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.steam engineA machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.steelA form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment.steppesTreeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Good for breeding horses: essential to Mongol military.submarine telegraph cablesInsulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866. In the late 1980s this technology was replaced with large submarine fiber optic cables that still today form the basis of most global communication.sub-Saharan AfricaPortion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara.Suez CanalShip canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.Suleiman the MagnificentThe most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.SumeriansThe people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions.Sun Yat-SenChinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.SunnisMuslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.SwahiliBantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa.Taiping RebellionThe most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.Tamil KingdomsThe kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Aryan north.Tang EmpireEmpire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.Tanzimat'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.TenochtitlanCapital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.TeotihuacanA powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.terrorismtargeting random people who are usually civilians with violence for a political purpose.ThebesCapital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings. (p. 43)Theravada'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. It remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of godsThomas EdisonAmerican inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.Thomas MalthusEighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.three-field systemA rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.TimurMember of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire.Tokugawa Shogunatewas a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.Treaty of NankingTreaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.Treaty of VersaillesThe treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.Treaty PortsCities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the in these cities, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality.tributary systemA system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China.tribute systemA system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies.triremeGreek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers.czarFrom Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505).UigursA group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia. (p. 284)ulamaMuslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)Umayyad CaliphateFirst hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled one of the largest empires in history that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.ummaThe community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.VarnaThe four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.Vasco da GamaPortuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.vassalIn medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord, usually in exchange for the use of land.VedasEarly Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down.Victorian AgeReign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class peopleVladimir LeninLeader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.Western FrontA line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.witch-huntThe pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.Woodrow WilsonPresident of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.Yin and yangIn Daoist belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. One is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities while the other with feminine, dark, and passive qualities.YongleReign period of Zhu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403-1424).Sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travelYuan EmpireHe created this dynasty in China and Siberia. Khubilai Khan was head of the Mongol Empire and grandson of Genghis Khan.ZenThe Japanese word for a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on highly disciplined meditation.Zheng HeAn imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.ZhouThe people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History.zigguratmassive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.ZoroastrianismA religion originating in ancient Iran. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evilZuluA people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818.Abbasid DynastyFrom 750-1258 this was the 3rd dyansty of the Islamic Caliphate. They built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate.AbolitionThe movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. Begun by Quakers in England in the 1780s.AbsolutismA form of government, usually hereditary monarchy, in which the ruler has no legal limits on his or her power.Achaemenid EmpireThe name of an ancient Persian Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which was composed of many smaller kingdoms. The realm was divided into twenty-three satrapies whose administration and taxation was managed by subordinate local rulers.African diasporaThe separation of Africans from their homeland through centuries of forced removal to serve as slaves in the Americas and elsewhere.Aryansnomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste systemAssyrian Empirethis empire covered much of what is now mesopotamia, syria, palestine, egypt, and anatolia; its height was during the seventh and eigth centuries BCEAtlantic Slave TradeLasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.Bantu migrationThe movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000Bronze Agea period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronzeBubonic plaguedisease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism. Rats, fleas.Buddhismthe teaching that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirthByzantine EmpireHistorians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.Carolingian EmpireCharlemagne's empire; covered much of western and central Europe; largest empire until Napoleon in 19th centuryCaste Systema set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in societyCatherine the Greatruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nationsChavinthe first major South American civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is now Peru from about 900 to 200 B.C.chinaIn the classical and postclassical era, people in this country invented the compass, the rudder, and gun powder, among other things.Christianitya monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as saviorChristopher ColumbusGenoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.Commercial Revolutionthe expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.ConfucianismThe system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.ConfuciusChinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)Counter Reformationthe reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)Crusadesa series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the MuslimsDar al islaman Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic ruleDeismThe religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.English Civil WarConflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous kingHaciendasLarge Spanish colonial estates usually owned by wealthy families but worked by many peasantsHellenistic EmpireThe name of Alexander the Great's EmpireHomo SapiensA species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.IncasAncient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in PeruIndentured Servitudelabor under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time, typically three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities. Often used in the late 19th and early 20th century as a replacement of slave labor, but with fairly similar exploitative working conditions. Laborers were often transported thousands of miles and could not easily afford to return home.Indo-EuropeansMany people and languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India share a common linguistic traits due to being part of this ancient group.IndusThe civilization from this river's valley (3500 BC to 2500 BC) had two thriving cities which were Mohenjodaro and Harappa.Iron metallurgyExtraction of iron from its ores. allowed for cheaper stronger production of weapons and tools. More abundant than tin and copperIvan the Terrible(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed, even killing his own son. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.Jainisma religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed. Mahavira founded this religion.John CalvinSwiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibly of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)Joint Stock CompanyA company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.Julius CaesarMade dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assassinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his powerJustinian's CodeLaws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nationsKing Henry VIII of EnglandKing of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.King Louis XIV of FranceRuled with an iron fist for 60 years, and always wanted war. Believed in Divine Right theory, in which God chose him to rule over the masses and that anyone who challenged him would be challenging God. Thought that an absolute monarchy was the best form of government, and that men couldn't be trusted to govern themselves.Phillip II336 BC, was an ancient Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great.Kingdom of KongoBasin of the Congo (Zaire) river, conglomeration of several village alliances, participated actively in trade networks, most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms, royal currency: cowries, ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave tradersManorialismEconomic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.Marco PoloVenetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.Martin Luthera German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.Matteo RicciPortuguese Jesuit missionary who went to China, assimilated into Chinese culture and language and ran a Christian mission in China.Alexander the GreatChandragupta Maurya is believed to have modeled his conquest of India (forming the Mauryan Empire) off of the conquests of what other leader?Mayansa member of a major pre-Columbian civilization of the Yucatán Peninsula that reached its peak in the 9th century a.d. and produced magnificent ceremonial cities with pyramids, a sophisticated mathematical and calendar system, hieroglyphic writing, and fine sculpture, painting, and ceramics.Medieval Japan1185 - 1608 a period of Japanese history when aristocratic Japanese warlords controlled land and economy.Mercantilisman economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interestsMesopotamiaBirthplace of the Sumerian civilization among many others.Millet SystemDivided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.Ming DynastyA major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast AsiaMongol Empirean empire founded in the 12th century by Genghis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dnieper River in eastern Europe.Mycenaeansa group of people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdomsNeo-Confucianismterm that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatismEgyptsociety was ruled by a pharaoh considered the incarnation of the sun god who controled acces to the Nile; they had hieroglyphics, the 365-day calender, they were polythestic and worshipped the deadOceaniaa large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)Olmecs(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.priests/aristocrats were at the top of society, built a ceremonial center, wroshiped the jaguar and werejaguar, best remains are the stone carved heads at la venta, use of calendar, spread through trade, known for art, most important legacy was priestly leadership and devotionOlympicsGreek athletic competitions to celebrate the Gods and feed city-state rivalriesOttoman EmpireIslamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire.Paleolithic Eracalled the old stone age (from 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago); they were concerned with food supply; they used stone as well as bone tools; they were nomadic hunters and gatherers.Patriarchya form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line, with the children belonging to the father's clan or tribe.Phoenicianslocated on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiformPolisA city-state in ancient Greece.Portuguese Empiretook lead in European exploration (sponsored by Prince Henry); went East and found gold in Africa (the Cape of Good hope) and India for spice tradeQin Dynastythe Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great WallQing Dynastythe last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries. Also known for its extreme isolationism.Queen Elizabeth IThis "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in EnglandFlorenceThis city was once of hot spots of Renaissance culture in the 1400s,Repartimiento systemrequired adult male Native Americans to devote a set number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises. PROBLEM- abused workers due to sense of urgency and exploitationSerfdomA type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.Seven Years WarFought between France/Russia and Prussia- Frederick kept fighting against heavy odds and was saved when Peter III took Russian throne and called off the war.Shang DynastySecond Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.SilverDue to the changes in the growing Atlantic economy, by 1581 China was requiring that all land taxes were to be paid for with what form of currency?SkepticismA philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.AfricaIn the 16th century, warfare between states/groups in _______ for the purposes of capturing new slaves to be taken to the Atlantic market increased dramatically.Songhay EmpireA state located in western Africa from the early 15th to the late 16th centuries following the decline of the Mali Empire.SpartaGreek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the artsblanketsIn 1763, British soldiers fighting native Americans in the Pontiac War, are famously accused of giving _______ infected with small pox to the natives. This has been suggested as an early example of germ warfare.St. PetersburgBuilt by Peter the Great of Russia to attract europeans and to get warm water ports.Sufismystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple lifeSui DynastyThe short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to ChinaSuleyman the MagnificentOttoman Sultan (1512-20) expansion in Asia and Europe, helped Ottomans become a naval power, challegned Christian vessles througout the Mediterranian. 16th Century. The "lawgiver" who was so culturally aware yet exacted murder on two of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent civil war. Ottoman.SunniThe largest branch of Islam. After the death of Muhammad, Muslims who accepted Abu Bakr as the first Caliph became known as Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah or "the people of tradition and unification" in order to differentiate them from the Shia, who rejected Abu Bakr's authority in favor of Muhammad's cousin Ali as the next Caliph.ShiaThe second largest sect within Islam. It originated in the early centuries of Islam perhaps over a political dispute over who would be the next Caliph. This group believed that Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali should be the Caliph. Over time this faction's religious interpretations and practices have also come to differ slightly from most Muslims.Taj Mahalbeautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wifeTang Dynastydynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to ManchuriaThe EnlightenmentA philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.Great Walla vast Chinese defensive fortification begun in the 3rd century B.C. and running along the northern border of the country for 2,400 kmRomanovsRussian family that came to power in 1613 and ruled for three centuries.Thirty Years WarProtestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of westpahlia.1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.TimbuktuCity on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.Trading Post EmpiresBuilt initially by the portuguese, these were used to control the trade routes by forcing merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there.Trans Saharan traderoute across the sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the tradingTreaty of Tordesillasa 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.Umayyad DynastyAn Islamic Dynasty based on succession rather than election following the first period of caliphates. Continued advances in the kingdom, venturing as far as China in the East. Fell apart in 750 CE due to internal tensions.Vedic AgeA period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth.Vikingsone of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century.Warring States Periodtime of warfare between regional lords following the decline of the Zhou dynasty in the 8th century B.C.E.Westernizationpolicy of Peter the Great. Adoption of western ideas, technology, and cultureYellow RiverEnglish name for the Huang He River in the north of China where the first Chinese civilization emerged.baroqueMajor Western artistic style from 1500s to 1700s. Climactic, dramatic, dark vs. usage, shocking/ gruesomeneoclassicalMajor Western artistic style from 1600s to 1800s. Symmetry, Greek/ Roman influence, patterns, simple in colorrealismMajor Western artistic style of the 19th century. Against Romanticism, precise imitation w/o alteration, personal experiences, peasants/ everyday peopleromanticismMajor Western artistic style of 1700s and 1800s.Against Neoclassicism, spontaneous, mysterious/ exotic, untamed/ powerful nature, embraces folklore and national traditions, glorification of heroesimpressionismMajor Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s.Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful.Latin AmericaThis region in the 19th century experienced a wave of independence movements following the American and French Revolutions.Spanish-American Warconflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. Fought mainly for the issue of Cuban independence from Spain.Congress of Viennawas a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November, 1814 to June, 1815. Its objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.Schlieffen PlanGerman General Staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war where it might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east.Iron Law of Wagesproposed principle of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.Crimean Warwar fought between the Russian Empire on one side and an alliance of the British Empire, French Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau on the other.Adam SmithScottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.Balkansgeopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe. Greece and the region North of Greece.Tanzimat Reformsbegan under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdülmecid issued an organic statute for the general government of the empire named the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (the imperial garden where it was first proclaimed). It guarantees to ensure the Ottoman subjects perfect security for their lives, honour, and property introduction of the first Ottoman paper banknotesOpen Door PolicyStatement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.KulakA Russian peasant farmer who owns land. Late imperial and early Soviet eras.PredestinationOften associated with Calvinism in the Protestant Reformation, it is the doctrine that God has already chosen who will be saved and become Christian and that people have no actual choice in the matter.Western WallSometimes called the Wailing Wall, this Sacred Jewish site is what remains of the former Israelite temple prior to the 1st century CE war with Rome and subsequent Jewish diaspora.Ghengis KhanThe title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'universal' leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire.JihadA contoversial term in Islam that literally means "striving in the way of Allah"Isolationismthe policy of separating one's country from the economic and political interactions with the rest of the world. nationsMilitarismThe tendency to regard military greatness as the supreme ideal of the state and to subordinate all other interests to those of the military.RevolutionAn overthrow and replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.SectarianDevoted to a particular religious sect, particularly when referring to religious involvement in politicsRecessionA slowdown in economic activity over a period of time. During one of these periods all of the following things decline: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household incomes, business profits and inflation. Meanwhile bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise.RadicalFavoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms.NationalizeTo bring under the ownership or control of a nation, such as industries and land.Truman DoctrineCommon name for the Cold War strategy of containment versus the Soviet Union and the expansion of communism. This doctrine was first asserted by President Truman in 1947.Leon TrotskyRussian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of StalinAbdicateto renounce or relinquish a throne, right, power, claim, responsibility, or the like, especially in a formal mannerArmisticeA cease fire or temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement of the warring parties.ConservativeA political viewpoint disposed to preserve existing conditions, institutions, etc., or to restore traditional ones.EgalitarianCharacterized by belief in the equality of all people, especially in political and social life.Ethnic Cleansingthe elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration.GlobalizationThe process of the world becoming more economically interconnected and interdependent. The tendency of investment funds and businesses to move beyond domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, thereby increasing the interconnectedness of different markets.Guerrillaa member of a band of irregular soldiers that uses guerrilla warfare, harassing the enemy by surprise raids, sabotaging communication and supply lines, etc.LiberalA political view that advocates for rule of law, representative government, and egalitarianism.SecularWhen something such as a government or cultural product is not based on religion it is said to be this.ApartheidA system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.Berlin Airliftsupplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin, which was located in the middle of Russian controlled East Germany.Fidel CastroCuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the regime of the dictator Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist stateChe Guevarawas an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous counter-cultural symbol.Cuban Missile CrisisA confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cubacivil disobedienceIs the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, especially by people who believe the law or the government to not be legitimate or moral.Great Leap Forwardeconomic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.Marshall Plana plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.Rape of Nanjinga six-week period following the Japanese capture of the Chinese city of Nanjing. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped[1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.European Unionan association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration.Flu Pandemic of 1918The deadliest natural disaster in human history. Killed between 50-100 million people following WWI.Abbasid Caliphatethird of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire. The rulers who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs. In started in 750 CE. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. In the 13th century the Mongols displaced them.AuthoritarianA style of government characterized by submission to authority. It tends to opposed individualism and democracy. In its most extreme cases it is one in which political power is concentrated in a leader or leaders, who possess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power.MalariaThis disease is commonly associated with poverty and is spread by mosquitos. Each year 1-3 million people mostly in sub-saharan Africa die of this diesase and hundreds of millions are infected.SmallpoxThe overall deadliest known disease in the history of the world. In the 20th century alone there were approximately 500,000,000 people who died of this disease.Islamic Golden AgeA hypothetical period that describes the status of the Islamic world from the mid-8th to the mid-13th century CE (sack of Baghdad by Mongols). During this period, artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own.AbbasidsAbbasids or Umayyads? Were more open and integrating of non Arab peoples, and were more open to the non-Arab masses converting to Islam.UmayyadsAbbassids or Umayyads? Non-Arab people were more ostracized from society, even if they were Muslim. They were prohibited from holding positions of influence, they paid more taxes, not wanting peasant and urban masses to convert to Islam.BushidoThe Feudal Japanese code of honor among the warrior class.Gross Domestic Product (GDP)A measurement of the total goods and services produced within a country.BourbonA European Royal family that is most known for its rule of France from the 16th through the 18th centuries.GobiThe desert to the north of ChinaBritish RajThe name given to the period and territory of direct British colonial rule in South Asia between 1858 and 1947--from the time of the attempted Indian Revolt (Sepoy Mutany) to the Independence of India.Sargon of Akkad(2370-2315 BCE) He is the creator of empire in Mesopotamia.HebrewsEarly group of people who lived in lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They developed the religion Judaism.BantuThe people who spread throughout Africa spreading agriculture, language, and iron.MenesThe king who unifed Egypt.Nile RiverThe river in which early kingdoms in Egypt were centered around.HieroglyphicsEgyptian writing that involved using pictures to represent words.BrahminsThe priest varna of the caste system.KshatriyasThe warrior and aristocrat varna of the caste system.VaishyasThe artisan and merchant varna of the caste system.ShudrasThe landless peasants and serfs of the caste system.JatiA sub-varna in the caste system that gave people of sense of community because they usually consisted of people working in the same occupation.SatiThe Indian custom of a widow voluntarily throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.UpanishadsA major book in Hinduism that is often in the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.BrahmanThe term for The Univeral Soul in Hinduism.MokshaBecoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism.Zhou DynastyA decentralized Chinese dynasty in China because of the massive size, and whose emperor was the first to claim to be a link between heaven and earth. Iron metallurgy increased in this dynasty.Ancestor VenerationThe practice of praying to your ancestors. Found especially in China.AnalectsThe book that Kong Fuzi wrote and that stresses the values and ideas of Confucianism.RenAn attitude of kindness and benevolence or a sense of humanity for Confucianism.LiCalled for individuals to behave in conventionally appropriate fashion in Confucianism.Filial PietyConcept is stressed in Confucianism. Reflected the high significance of the family in Chinese history.Qin Shihuangdi(r.221-210 BCE) The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty who believed strongly in Legalism and sought to strengthen the centralized China through public works.Han Dynasty(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalim.GuildsEconomic groups that functioned as jati by controling prices, output, workers, and competition for a specific product.SiddharthaThe founder of the religion Buddhism who believed that all life was suffering. Also known as the Buddha.Four Noble TruthsAll life invoves suffering; desire is the cause of suffering; elimination of desire brings an end to suffering; a disciplined life conducted life brings the elimination of desire.Noble Eightfold PathCalls for individuals to lead balanced and moderate lives, rejecting both the devotion to luxury and the regimes of extreme asceticism. (Buddhist Belief).NirvanaThe state of englightenment for Buddhists.DharmaThe basic doctrine shared by Buddhists of all sects.Mahayana BuddhismAlso known as popular Buddhism, is allows people more ways to reach enlightenment and boddhisatvas can help you reach enlightenment.BoddhisatvaA enlightened being who put off nirvana to come back and help others become enlightened.Bhagavad GitaA book in popular Hinduism that was a response to Buddhism and made reaching moksha way easier.MinoansThe Mediterranean society that formed on the island of Crete and who were a big maritime society.AthensA democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.Seleucid EmpireThe empire in Syria, Persia, and Bactria after the breakup of Alexander's empire.Plato(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.AristotleUnlike his teacher Plato, he believe that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world.PatriciansThe wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.Pax RomanaA time in history when the Roman Empire was at peace and promoted safe trade.ConstantineEmperor of the Roman Empire who moved the capital to Constantinople. He eventually converted to Christianity as well.MonsoonMajor winds in the Indian Ocean that blew into India for half the year, and blew away from India for the other half. Helped facilitate trade in the Indian Ocean.DiocletianRoman emperor who divided the empire into a West and an East section.The Great SchismThe seperation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church (1054 CE)PopeThe head of the Roman Catholic Church.Byzantine EmperorThe head of the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire.Council of Nicaea(325 CE) A council called by Constantine to agree upon correct Christian doctrine and settle some disputes of the time.TorahThe first five books of Jewish Scripture, which they believe are by Moses, are called thisBibleThe holy book of Christians.UmmaThe term for all Muslims as a community.HijraMuhammad's move to Medina. Start of the Islamic calendar (632 CE)Five PillarsThe basic tenets of Islam: Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet; pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca; fast during the month of Ramadan; pay alms for the relief of the weak and the poor; take a hajj to MeccaHajjThe annual pilgrimage to Mecca required to take by MuslimsShariaIslamic law; a combination of the Quran and the Hadith.JizyaThe tax on people in the Umayyad Caliphate who did not convert to Islam.SufiThe branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.Silla DynastyThe dynasty in Korea that rallied to prevent Chinese domination in the seventh century CE.Harsha(r.606-648 CE) He restored centralized rule in northern India after the collapse of the Gupta. He can be compared to Charlemagne.Delhi Sultanate(1206-1526 CE) The successors of Mahmud of Ghazni mounted more campaigns, but directed their goals to creating this empire.JunksChinese ships, particularly from the 1400s, are often called these. It was a sturdy Chinese ship design and the largest of its kind were treasures ships that could carry a thousand tons of cargo.DhowsLarge ships favored by Indian, Persian, and Arab sailors that could carry up to four hundred tons of cargo.AxumThe Christian state in Africa that developed its own branch of Christianity, Coptic Christianity, because it was cut off from other Christians due to a large Muslim presence in Africa.Battle of Tours(732 CE) European victory over Muslims. It halted Muslim movement into Western Europe.Charlemagne(768-814 CE) Crowned king in 800 CE by the pope; can be compared to Harsha; brought back unified rule to Europe only during his life; used the missi dominici to check up on imperial officials.Battle of Hastings(1066 CE) The Norman invasion of England; this was the largest battle.SerfsPeople who gave their land to a lord and offered their servitude in return for protection from the lord.Pope Gregory IThis pope strongly emphasized the sacrament of penance and encouraged confession for the remission of sins which made people more dependent on the church for salvation.Genghis KhanAlso known as Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land empire in history.Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368 CE) The dynasty with Mongol rule in China; centralized with bureaucracy but structure is different: Mongols on top->Persian bureaucrats->Chinese bureuacrats.Battle of Manzikert(1071 CE) Saljuq Turks defeat Byzantine armies in this battle in Anatolia; shows the declining power of Byzantium.TamerlaneHe is very much like Ghengis Khan; a military leader who conquered the lands of Persia; his empire was decentralized with tribal leaders.ChivalryCode of honor and ethics taken by knights.ScholasticismThis sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy. Often associated with St. Thomas Aquinas.Urban IIThe pope that issued the crusades in 1095 CEFirst Crusade1099 CE, Jerusalem fell to the Christian crusaders; the only successful crusade.Bubonic PlagueAlso called the Black Death; is believed to be the deadly disease that spread through Asia and Europe and killed more than a third of the people in parts of China and Europe.MIng DynastySucceeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.Eunuchscastrated males, originally in charge of protection of the ruler's concubines. Eventually had major roles in government, especially in China.Hundred Years' WarSeries of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France. The negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453.RenaissanceA period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600.James CookEnglish navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779).British East India Companyan early joint-stock company; were granted on English royal charter with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India. Had a lot of power in India.Seven Years' War(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.Columbian ExchangeThe exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.Coucil of Trent(1545-1563 CE) Council of the Catholic Reformation that reemphasized and justified the Roman Catholic beliefs. In response to the Protestant Reformation.Society of JesusA Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work.Thirty Years' War(1618-1648 CE) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.Treaty of WestphaliaEnded Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic.Charles VHoly Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.New Monarchies of the 1400s EuropeIn the 15th century, government in which power had been centralized under a king or queen, particularly France, England, and Spain.Absolute MonarchyConcept of government developed during rise of nation-states in Western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, and imposed state economic policies.Spanish InquisitionAn organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.Constitutional MonarchyA King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.Louis XIVThis French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.TsarThe Russian term for ruler or king; taken from the Roman word caesar.Balance of PowerDistribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong (especially in Europe).Galileo GalileiThis scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.Nicolaus CopernicusA Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.Isaac NewtonEnglish mathematician and scientist- invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.KeplerThis astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun.VoltaireFrench philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance.Theory of ProgressThe European Enlightenment idea that stated that society was always progressing.Spanish ArmadaThe great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.Hernán CortésSpanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.ConquistadorGeneric term for a Spanish conqueror of the Americas.Francisco PizarroSpanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541).ViceroyGovernor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign; think Spanish colonies.AudienciasCourts appointed by the king who reviewed the administration of viceroys serving Spanish colonies in America.MestizoA person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.ZambosAccording to Spanish and Portuguese colonizedrs, these are people of mixed Native American and African descent. Lowest tier of social class in colonial America.PeninsularesSpanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.Mita SystemThe system recruiting workers for particularly difficult and dangerous chores that free laborers would not accept.QuintoOne-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.HaciendaSpanish colonists formed large, self-sufficient farming estates known as these.EncomiendaA grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.Triangular TradeA three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa.ManchuriansFederation of Northeast Asian (from Manchuria) peoples who founded the Qing Empire.Civil Service ExamIn Imperial China starting in the Han dynasty, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.Foot BindingPractice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.DaimyoA Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai; warlord but not as powerful as a shogun.Mehmed the Conqueror(r.1451-1481), he captured Constantinople in 1453, which later became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital; Ruled with an absolute monarchy and centralized his power; Expanded into Serbia, Greece, and Albania (attacked Italy).SafavidsA Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans and Arabs.Twelver ShiismA belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion.Battle of Chaldiran16th Century. The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).Abbas the GreatSafavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.AurangzebMughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.IstanbulCapital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.IsfahanCapital of the Safavid Empire.OsmanFounder of the Ottoman Empire.Shah IsmailFounder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash.BaburFirst sultan of the Mughal Empire; took lots of land in India.American RevolutionThis political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.Declaration of Independence United StatesSigned in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.French RevolutionThe revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.Louis XVIKing of France (r.1774-1792 CE). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.Declaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenAdopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).The ConventionLegislative body created by revolutionary leaders that abolished the monarchy & proclaimed France a republic; rallied French population by instituting levée en masse ("mass levy"); basically the French equivalent of the draft); frequently used the guillotine on enemies.Reign of TerrorThis was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.Maximilien RobespierreYoung provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution; his execution ended the Reign of Terror.The DirectoryEstablished after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years.Napoleonic WarsA series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times (1799-1812).Toussaint LouvertureWas an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.ConservatismA political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.ZionismA policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.Rebellions of 1848A series of rebellions throughout Europe in 1848; they were crushed by the conservative powers.Camillo di CavourThe political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state.Giuseppe GaribaldiItalian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882).Eli WhitneyUnited States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825).Henry FordUnited States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).CorporationA business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.Demographic TransitionThe process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.Karl MarxGerman philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.Communist ManifestoA socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1848) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views.CommunismA theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.SocialismA theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.Mexican-American War(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.US Civil WarThe violent conflict between Union and confederate forces over states rights and slavery.Abraham Lincoln16th president of the United States; helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy; an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery.War of 1812A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.Mexican Revolution(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.Russo-Japanese WarWar between Russia and Japan; Japan wins and takes parts of Manchuria under its control.Opium WarWar between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories; the victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.Treaty of Nanjing1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of Chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws; this treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws; one of these were Hong Kong.Hundred Days Reformsa failed 103-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty ChinaBoxer Rebellion1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.Meiji RestorationThe political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.Sepoy RebellionThe revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs in India against the Brisith; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.Scramble for AfricaThe European's flurry of colonializations in Africa in the mid-late 1800s.Boer WarLasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.Berlin ConferenceA meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.Monroe DoctrineAn American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers.Social DarwinismThe application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.Ram Mohan RoyFather of modern India; he called for the construction of a society based on both modern Euorpean science and the Indian tradition of devotional Hindusim.World War IA war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918.Central PowersIn World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.Triple EntenteAn alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.Russian RevolutionThe revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917.Treaty of Brest-LitovskTreaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war (1918).Paris Peace ConferenceThe great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.Fourteen PointsThe war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.Great DepressionA time of utter economic disaster; started in the United States in 1929.Joseph StalinRussian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).First Five Year PlanStalin's economic plan to build heavy industry.FascismA political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism).IslamismA fundamentalist Islamic revivalist movement generally characterized by moral conservatism and the literal interpretation of the Quran and the attempt to implement Islamic values in all aspects of life.IndustrializationThis gradually changed the way that things were produced, starting in the mid 18th century, but escalating greatly by the mid 19th century.TextilesThe first industry to be industrialized in the 18th century.Atlantic OceanThis body of water contributed to Britain, the United States, France, and eventually Germany becoming industrializedFour-field rotationCrop rotation methods are ancient but this Dutch method from the 1500s was popularized in Britain in the 1700s and led to a large increase in agricultural productivity. It typically involved rotating wheat, turnips, barley and clover, and allowed livestock to be bred year-round.Private PropertyMany liberals of the Enlightenment era believed, such as that citizens have private property rights and that people should generally be free to do what they want with their own possessions. This contributed to the rise of Capitalism.CanalsGovernments in northern Europe, especially in Britain, built these man-made waterways in the 1700s and 1800s to benefit commerce. It contributed to the rise of industrialization.Fossil fuelsThis new source of energy powered steam engines and internal combustion engines and greatly increased the energy available to industrial societies.Factory systemThis new system gradually replaced localized cottage industry. Workers were paid by the hour instead of for what they produce. On one hand it decreased the need for skilled labor, but in other ways it increased the amount of specialization due to labor being concentrated in factories.MonocultureCotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, whale blubber, minerals etc. Industrialization led to an increased demand for foreign raw resources. This is a term for countries relying solely on the exportation of mainly one raw resource.South AfricaRare metals are needed for industry such as seen with the increased mining activity in the British colony of South Africa.stock marketsNew financial instruments--especially ways for businesses to raise money--were developed in this period. stock exchanges where corporate shares could be sold.TransnationalSome businesses where their ownership and organization were not confined to a particular country, such as with the United Fruit Company.Family WageAs industrialization gradually became more intense in certain areas, men displaced women in factories and were paid more, partly because men were seen as requiring a family wage.Public EducationWith increased birthrates, urbanization, the outlawing of child labor, the increase of voting rights, and the influence of socialism, families were changed by the children spending much of their time in free community-sponsored schools.IndonesiaThe Dutch had a presence in in this place, which they called the East Indies from 1595. But during the 19th century their control of this set of islands expanded and became their biggest colony.SiamThe Kingdom known today as Thailand, remained relatively independent during through the nineteenth century because they served as a buffer between the colonies of Britain and France in Indochina.NomadicPrior to agriculture, this type of group traveled looking for food and shelter.Neolithic RevolutionThe switch from nomadic lifestyles to a settled agricultural lifestyle is this revolution.IrrigationWith the invention of this tecnique, lands were able to be farmed that previously could not have beenPastoralSocieties that were characterized by the domestication of animals but they usually did not settle down and farm or build towns.Population Increase in Agricultural RevolutionPopulation increased as a result of the Agricultural Revolution because more people could be fed reliably.Pastoralismdeveloped at various sites in the grasslands of Afro-Eurasia because these places supported large mobile herds and nomadic lifestyle but not farming or cities.DesertificationThe process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.SteamshipThe 19th century had new forms of transportation. This new type of water transportation used steam instead of sails.Potato FamineCaused Irish citizens to migrate because of starvation.Ethnic EnclavesTerritories or communities with a distinct ethnicity, often developing during the mass migration to big cities in the 19th century. Examples, "China Towns," "Little Italies" etcAssimilationEthnic groups lost their distinctive culture through the domination of newly expanding empires.Ethnic ConflictsCommon within places after they win their independence, especially if they have diverse populations and differing national identities.Partition of IndiaThis led to the movement of millions of people in South Asia after India got its independence from Britian.PharaohsThe rulers of Egypt, believed by their people to be descended of the sun god.Tax FarmingTo generate money for territorial expansion rulers used new methods to get money like Tribute systems and Tax Farming. Under this system the government hires private individuals to go out and collect taxes for them.Chinese Examination systemTo maintain centralized control, rulers recruited and use bureaucratic elites and the development of military professionals. For example the Chinese used this system.White Australia PolicyA policy that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to AustraliaWhy were women left to take on new roles in the home society in the 1800s?Due to large-scale during the 19th century, women were left to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by menWhat gender were most migrants in the 1800s?During the nineteenth century due to the physical nature of the labor and other reasons, most migrants tended to be Male.QanatA water management system that originated in Perisa thousands of years ago. It provided water to people even in hilly, desert, hot, and arid areas (like Iran).ScientificNew Scientific paradigms such as the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and psychology transformed human understanding of the world from 1900 to the present.ProductionNew energy sources utilized from 1900 to the present, such as oil and nuclear power, increased the Production of goods and services.TransportationScientific developments in Transportation since 1900 have led to the elimination of the problem of geographic distance through innovations such as automobiles, jets, and subways.Small PoxDevelopments in science and medicine have made it possible for humans to wipe out entire diseases such as Small Pox.InfluenzaThe last global pandemic in history that killed millions was that of Influenza in 1918.MesoamericaA geographic region in the western hemisphere that was home of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations.TheocracyA government ruled by or subject to religious authority.BureaucracyOrganized system of administration of a government chiefly through bureaus or departments staffed with non elected officials.BuddhaMeans "Enlightened One." He is said to have found a path for overcoming suffering.Fertile CrescentThe swath of land in the Middle East where agriculture and later urbanization and later the first empires began.HarappansThe first river valley civilization of India on the Indus River. They mysteriously disappeared.GreeksKnown for their culture (such as art, architecture and philosophy). Made up of city-states. Didn't have a large empire or military.Persian EmpireGreatest empire in the world up to 500 BCE. Spoke an Indo-European language. A multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire. Fell to Alexander the Great.ReincarnationHindu and Buddhist belief that souls are reborn into new bodies over and over.AshokaLeader of the Mauryan dynasty of India who conquered most of India but eventually gave up violence and converted to Buddhism.Gupta DynastyIndian Empire (320 CE-550 CE) known for re-establishing Hinduism and for achievements in math and science.AqueductFamous example of Roman engineering that also made possible the existence of large cities.HanChinese Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE) ruled a centralized and growing empire for 400 years. Complex centralized buraucracy with Civil service system based on Confucianism. Traded on Silk Road.Christianity and Buddhism spread because?Christianity and Buddhism, though fundamentally very different both are offshoots of older exclusive ethnic-based religions. Each spread throughout the reminents of a great classical empire of the time. Anyone could join these religions.Agricultural RevolutionResulted not only in a more reliable food source, but also in a shifting of dependancy and power to males over females, the claiming and defending of land, and the establishment of the first political and religious institutions.HunsAll three of the classical empires (Romans, Han, and Gupta) faced the threat of invasion by this central Asian pastoral nomadic group.AmericasPeople in this region developed complex urban societies and empires without the benefit of large pack animals or Iron technology.PyramidsThe Sumerians, Egyptians, and Americans all built different types of this kind of structure because they all had a heavily centralized governments with emperors who were seen as closely tied to religion or were even seen as gods.Urban RevolutionBetween approximately 4000 and 1500 BCE human societies in certain river valleys transformed from Neolithic farming villages into more complex urban societies. What might this transition be called?PatriarchalMen dominated the societyJohn Stuart MillArguably the most famous English philosopher and politician of the 1800s. Champion of liberty over unlimited state control. Also famous for adding falsification as a key component of the scientific method.MarxismEmerged as the most famous socialist belief system during the 19th century. Saw all of history as the story of class struggle.AnarchismMany groups including the socialists and Marxists of the 19th century often opposed the idea of a state. They believed society would function better without a government and that governments do nothing but promote exploitation. What is this belief system called?SuffrageIndustrial societies such as in Britain, France, and the US produced a lot of criticism, so some governments were forced to respond with reforms such as free public education and expanded suffrage for all men.Middle ClassThe Middle Class also called the bourgeoisie, was essentially a new and extremely powerful social class within industrialized societies. They were the wealthy but non-aristocratic class of property owners and the biggest beneficiaries of industrial prosperity. But the Marxists saw them as exploiters of the working class.Divine RightEnlightenment ideas such as the social contract, natural rights, and the general will were a challenge to this traditional basis of rule by monarchs.Toussaint L'OvertureThe main leader of the Haitian independence movement.CaudillosBy the 1830s, Latin America was mostly ruled by these military dictators from the creole class (American-born European-descendant).Franco-Prussian WarThis was a major war between the French and the Germans in 1871 that brought about the unification of Germany. It was caused by Otto Von Bismarck altering a telegram from the Prussian King to provoke the French into attacking Prussia.ZollvereinThe name of the free trade zone that German states created prior to their unification.Java WarIn this war (1825-1830), the people of the Island of Java rebelled against their Dutch colonizers. The Dutch won after suffering 8000 deaths and killing perhaps as many as 200,000 islanders.Britain and ImperialismAfter Egypt became independent from the Ottomans, it still had to contend with the influence of European imperialists, particularly this nation.CherokeeIn response to the rapid expansion by the United States, this native tribal group formed a national government, sought to modernize their society, but were forcibly relocated in the 1830s.PhilippinesAfter decades of nationalist resistance against the Spanish (and violent repression of activists) this Pacific Island nation proudly declared independence in 1898. But the Spanish had handed control over to the USA, who had no plans to recognize their independence.LiberiaIn 1820, the American Colonization Society created a colony in West Africa for freed slaves to go. By the 1840s this colony had its own constitution and became and independent nation.White Man's burdenThe idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized. Also a poem by Rudyard Kipling.Mohammad AliEgyptian ruler from 1805-1848, oversaw many changes to Egypt during that time period. One of these changes involved building up the military by looking to the French and Napoleon. He also opened up educational institutions as well as made Egypt one of the leading cotton exporters.Sadler reportReport in 1832 where Michael Sadler took parliamentary investigation of previous children workers who worked in mines and factories as children. The report covers the interview with Matthew Crabtree who was a former child textile factory worker. Crabtree talks about the long work hours, little pay, and bad living conditionsChartist MovementMovement sought to expand suffrage (the right to vote) to more people in Britain.Universal Male SuffrageThe right of all males to vote in elections.19th AmendmentAmendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.Second Industrial RevolutionThe phase of industrialization starting in the 1860s with increased steel, chemistry, and eventually electricity, and oil. Bessemer process; link between science and industrial development. Corresponds with the new wave of imperialism that happened at the same time.Enclosure Acts1773 A series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common. Forcing commoners from that land and into cities.Spinning JennyThis machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)Water Frame1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized loomsSteam engineA machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.Entrepreneurshipthe process of bringing together the three factors of production - natural resources, labor and capital - the person who does this is an entrepreneur.AbolitionismA movement to end slavery.Emancipation ProclamationIssued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free.Miguel HidalgoMexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions.Economic ImperialismIndependent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments.BastilleMedieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.March of the WomenOn October 5-6,1789 there was spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread due to scarcity and high prices; Parisian women go to Versailles and angrily demand bread from the monarchs; they take the royal family to Paris as prisoners.Olympe de GougesFrench journalist who demanded equal rights for women.Marie AntoinetteQueen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793).Sans CulottesReference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.French Committee of Public SafetyEstablished and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.coup d'etatA sudden overthrow of the government by a small group.Concordatthe peace agreement made between Napoleon and the Pope following the chaos of the French Revolution.The Napoleonic CodeThis was the French law put in place by Napoleon. It promoted equality before the law, toleration of all religions, and outlawing serfdom and feudalism. It also took away women's rights and outlawed trade unions and strikes.Copernicus1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.GalileoHe was the first person to use a telescope to observe objects in space. He discovered that planets and moons are physical bodies because of his studies of the night skies.Descartes(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.Thomas HobbesEnglish materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)Enlightened despotismAbsolute rule justifies not on grounds of heredity or divine right. Secular in outlook and justification, as in Frederick the Great's self-description as "the first servant of the state." Used to rationalize and organize the state from the top down during the Age of the Enlightenment. Other example is Joseph II of AustriaNatural LawA major Enlightenment era idea of universal principles that dictate not only the natural world but also humanity, rights, and morality.Tokugawa IeyasuVassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan.James cookEnglish navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779).AboriginalsThe indigenous people of Australia; arrived 40,000 years ago; mistreated by European settlers.Magna Carta"the Great Charter"; a written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.ParliamentBritain's law-making assembly.House of Commonsthe first legislative body of the British Parliament whose members are elected.Oliver CromwellEnglish general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)English Bill of RightsKing William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.Suleiman the magnificentThe most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as The Lawgiver. He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.Sha AbbasRuled the Safavid Empire at its cultural and military height.Red Turban rebellionUprising which lead to the overthrow of the yuan dynasty.Ming TaizuRestored the civil service exams and tried to make them fair to poor students.HuguenotsFrench Protestants influenced by John Calvin.Jean-Baptiste ColbertAn economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.GuanoA highly effective fertilizer made from bird or bat poop. It became a major commodity traded globally in the 19th century.Nation StateA state who's territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.Gold StandardIn the 1900's the Gold Standard was signed by McKinley. Which said that all paper money should and would be backed up by gold. This means that the government had to keep gold in special places whenever someone decided that they wanted to trade in their money. this eventually eliminated silver coins.HSBCShort name for the powerful 19th century transnational corporation named The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. It was established and based in Hong Kong since the 1865, when Hong Kong was one of the British colonies.Utopian SocialismUtopian Socialsim is an ideal society that is based on socialist ideals like Louis Blanc and Charles FourierQing ChinaThe Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) that took over after the Ming Dynasty. Believed in the mandate of heaven. Two big rulers during this time was Kangxi and Qianlong. The last dynasty in this region was ended by war, rebellions, and natural disasters.Meiji JapanMeiji Japan was an era that lasted from 1868-1912 when Japan began it's rapid process of westernization, industrialization, and expansion in foreign affairs.Tsarist RussiaThe tsarist empire in Asia and E europe, they were overthrown by the Russian Revolution in 1917.Self-Strengthening MovementIn 1861-1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing dynasty that went behind a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. didn't work.Tokugawa JapanTokugawa Japan was the final period of traditional Japan during the time period of 1603-1867, founded by Tokugawa Leyasu, Shoguns.Social ContractOne of the most famous ideas of the Enlightenment era of the 18th century. It's the believe in an agreement among members of the society to cooperate for social benefits. It was meant to replaced the idea of Divine Right of Kings.Jamaica LetterA document written in Jamaica by South American revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar where he famously expanded his views on the independence movement in Venezuela and the way the government under the way they tried to operate.Mary WollstonecraftEnglish author who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792Seneca Falls ConventionThe first women's right convention held in New York in 1848 to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women.MarathasWarriors that were part of a group caste in India that were found mostly in the state Maharashtra.Haitian RevolutionThe Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt in the French colony this was the only successful revolt that took place in Saint-Domingue which ended slavery there. The revolt began in with rebellious black slaves in 1791 and ended 1803 with the defeat of the French.Maroon SocietiesCommunities formed by escaped slaves in the Caribbean, Latin American. and the United States.Indian Revolt of 1857Also called the Sepoy Mutiny and began in 1857 as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East Indian Company army.Ghost DanceA movement that was a manifestation of Native Americans' fear, anger, and hop stating the onslaught of white invaders, U.S army brutalization, and the U.S legislative. It was also a term Plain Indians applied to the new rituals, Paiutes.Chinese indentured servitudeA Chinese Indentured servitude or coolie during the 19th and early 20th century, was a term for a locally-sourced unskilled labourer hired by a company, mainly from the Indian subcontinent or Southern China.Chinese Exclusion ActThe Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur in 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.Factory SystemThe system of producing goods made on a mass scale by machines in a factory which soon replaced goods made by hand .The factory system evolved in England in the 18t century as part of the Industrial Revolution.Transnational businessa commercial enterprise that operates substantial facilities,and business in more than one country and does not consider any particular country its home.Middle classAlso known as "bourgeoisie." During the industrial revolution this social class was wealthy and increasingly influential. They often owned and profited from their property, but didn't have traditional titles of nobility like the aristocracy did. Instead they relied on skills, training, entrepreneurship.Working classCalled the "proletariat" by Marxists. They are the individuals who sell their labor power for wages and who do not own the means of production. Marx argued that they were responsible for creating the wealth of a society.NationalismA form of typically ethnic and linguistic identity related to a certain territory and government. It's often expressed as patriotic feelings and principles.Settler ColonyA form of colonization where foreign family move into a region and an imperial political power oversees the immigration of these settlers.MillenarianismThe doctrine of or belief in a future thousand-year age of blessedness, beginning with or culminating in the Second Coming of Christ. It is central to the teaching of groups such as Plymouth Brethren, Adventists, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses.Global migrationIndustrial transportation technologies as well as growing population and changes to the labor market caused an increase in urbanization, especially toward industrial cities.Convict laborA system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States, beginning after the emancipation of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865 to about around 1880, and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928.Indentured servitudeA form of semi-coerced labor. When a person signs a contract they a forced to labor really long hours and sometimes not being paid just for survival needs.Ethnic enclavesEthnic Enclaves helped transplant their culture into new environment and facilitated the development of migrant support network.ConquistadoresSpanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires.ConstantinopleIn 1453 the capital and main outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror," an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.DevshirmeThe tribute of boys that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans; the Ottomans raised the boys for service in the civil administration or in the elite Janissary infantry corps.The Great DyingTerm used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas.MulattoTerm commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood.Thirty Year's WarHighly destructive war (1618-1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).Anti-Semitismpolicies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against JewsChartismThe principles of a body of 19th century English reformers and mass protests who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people.Pan-SlavismA movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.Positivismthe form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation)Racismdiscriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another raceCorporatisma political system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the state or dominant political party;public policy is typically the result of negotiations among representatives of the state and key interest groupsRealismThis was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotionRevisionismSocialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.Empiricismthe view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.ExistentialismA philosophy that values human freedom and personal responsibility. A few well known writers are Jean-Paul Satre, Soren Kierkegaard, Albert Camus, Freidrich Nietzche, Franz Kafka, and Simone de Beauvoir.RomanticismAn artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.UtilitarianismThe theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.Feminismthe belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as menImpressionismMajor Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s. Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful.JansenismA branch of Catholicism which resembled Protestantism. Emphasized need for God's grace in achieving salvation and the importance of original sin. Louis XIV took special actions to restrict the rights of this group and force them underground.MannerismArtistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.Modernismpractices typical of contemporary life or thoughtFederalismA system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governmentsCentralismdenotes the concentration of a government's power into a centralized government. This takes away some of the powers of the states and puts more power into the hands of the executive leaderFeudalismA political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the landProtectionismgovernment policy of insulating domestic industries from the world market through import tariffs and taxes.Radicalisma political philosophy that emphasizes the need to find and eliminate the basic injustices of society; seek what they consider the roots of the economic, political, and social wrongs of society and demand immediate and sweeping changes to wipe them out; a belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made to existing society, usually think current system cannot be saved and must be overturnedProtestantismReligions born of protests to the practices of Catholicism

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