Guided Reading Questions - Iran and Greece
Terms in this set (28)
Minerals and crafted goods
Primary sources of trade in ancient Iran?
A complex level of political organization under Persians
What were the Medes the first people to accomplish and under whose leadership?
Lydia and Caldean Empires
Once unified, who did the Persians then conquer?
Allowed the people to keep their cultures
How did the Persian ruler and his son initially rule their empire and the people they conquered?
provinces governed by satraps, tribute money funneled to center, decentralized legal system, extensive road and post system
Methods used by Persians to strengthen and unify their empire(4)
monotheistic(one supreme god), battle between good and bad and good triumphs, humanity must choose a side, afterlife in which reward and punishment are based on the choice of side
Key beliefs of Zoroastrianism
Harsh climates, depended on rainfall for agriculture, little metal or timber deposits, difficult overland transport. Prospered through sea trade
How is Greece "resource poor". How'd they eventually prosper?
no large rivers
What geographic factor significantly hindered Greece agriculturally?
Largely isolated from the rest of the world, decline in population, loss of arts and literacy
Characteristics of the Greek Dark Ages
Period after the 'Dark Age'; increase in arts and introduction to hoplites and alphabet based off on the Phoenician
To write down (i.e. oral epics, forms of literature, law codes, religious dedications, epitaphs). Easier to learn that cunieform and hieroglyphics
Why did the Greeks embrace the Phoenician alphabet?
Alphabet and art influenced by Phoenicians, Introductions of poleis and hoplites, military in Athens and Sparta, overseas colonization
Characteristics of Greek recovery during the Archaic period (4)
geography (especially mountains) separated populations
Why did the Greek poleis develop orginally?
fortified top of the city
A wave of colonization
What took place from th mid-eighth to mid-sixth centuries BCE to further indicate an end of the Greek Dark Age?
Led to rapid exchange of goods, more efficient record-keeping and storage of walth, stimulated trades, increased total wealth of the society
How was coin money a significant economic advancement throughout the Mediterranean region/ (4)
What is the exercise of political privileges by wealthier members of society?
What is a valuing of the uniqueness, talents, and rights of the individual?
tyrants (wealthy lost power, and the middle class rose)
Key factor that contributed to the growth of Greek democracy
They provided the chief protection for the community and were the source of its power
What enabled the rowers of Athenian battleships to gain an equal voice in the democratic system?
Maintained the framework of the Persian administration, adopted elements of Persian dress and court cermonies, established a series of Greek-like cities, married several Iranian women and urged his leading subordinates to do the same
Policies used by Alexander the Great to control his large empire (4)
Divided into three kingdoms, ruled by Macedonian dynasties (Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Antigonid)
What happened to Alexander the Great's empire after his death?
Greeks migrating from overcrowded homeland, long distance trade and communications, rise of libraries and universities, and cultivation of art and literature
"Cosmopolitan" features of the Hellenistic societies
To gain legitamacy for Ptolemaic rule
Why did the Ptolemaic king steal Alexander's body
The independent poleis fostered rivalry and mistrust among neighbors
How does the Peloponnesian war reveal an inherent flaw in Greek society?
They feared an uprising by the helots
Sparta became a highly militarized society primarily because..?
An abundance of slaves (votes for all "citizens" - free, native-born, adult males with land)
One irony of Athenian democracy was..?