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Developmental Psychology Exam 1
Terms in this set (96)
Seeks to understand how and why citizens function the way they do
science of human development
Takes into account all phases of life from conception to death
life span perspective
Discontinuous change animal example
Caterpillar to butterfly
Continual change animal example
Turtle through the years
Time when a particular type of growth either will or won't happen
Time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens easier
Humans can be molded while maintaining a certain durability of identity
Effects of environment on an individual or cultural group
Which grand theory was Erik Erikson associated with?
How many stages of development did Erikson propose based on Freud?
What did Erikson believe the problems of adults to come from?
What is behaviorism also called?
What are the three types of learning theories?
Classical, operant, social learning
Who said that psychology couldn't be a real science unless t was measured by behaviorism?
Who developed classical conditioning with dogs?
Who developed the idea of the learning process by which a natural stimuli is followed by a negative or positive reinforcement?
B. F. Skinner
Who experimented with bobo dolls and modeling?
Who proved that human behavior can be manipulated and also initiated without reinforcements or stimuli?
"How children think changes with time and experience, and their thought processes affect behavior"
State of mental balance, no confusion
Experiences are interpreted to fit I with or assimilate with old ideas and thoughts
Old ideas restructured to accommodate new experiences
Compares with a computer, sensory output, connections, memory
informative processing theory
" thoughts and human development results from interactions between persons and surroundings, and focuses on culture as integral to development"
Which grant theory was Lev Vygotsky with?
What did Vygotsky accomplish?
Described interaction between culture and education
Skills, knowledge, and concepts that a Learner is close to acquiring but can't without a master
zone of proximal development
Process of joint construction
New knowledge obtained through mentoring
"Stresses potential for all humAns for good and the belief that all people have same basic needs"
How many hierarchies are there in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Who was the psychologist who dealt with unconditional positive regard?
"Suggests that humans have 2 long standing biological based drives: survival and reproduction"
"Taken by most developmentalists and helps guard against bias and facilitates open mindedness"
What is a variation in a gentic code, varies from causing life threatening scenarios to not being present?
What is a gene that additional DNA and RNA surround called?
What is the organism's genetic inheritance of genetic potential that is unique for each individual?
What is a combination of 2 gametes from parents called?
How many single autosomes (unpaired chromosomes) are there, excluding the two sex characteristics?
How many pairs of chromosomes are there?
What is the scientific term for identicle twins?
what is the scientific term for fraternal twins?
What is it that helps infertile coupes conceive and sustain pregnancies?
Assisted REproductive Technology
What is the term for fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body?
What isthe observable characteristics indluding personality, intelligence?
What does polygenetic?
influenced by many traits
What are epigenetics?
how enviornment affects gene.
What are genes that add something to some aspect of the phenotype called?
This is an example of what kind of gene: "Height is a combination of 100 genes"
Why are X linked disorders more common for males than for females?
because usually the other X is the dominant
What occurs in abundance and involves genes with various repeats or detections of base pairs?
copy number variations
The fetal period lasts from when to when?
9th week after conception until birth
What month does the SRY gene on Y chromosome trigger development of male sexal organs and testosterone?
In which phase of prenatal development does the brain increase 6x in size and allows for regular movements?
middle three months
In which phase of prenatal development does the lungs expand and contract, the heart matres, the veins in the body begin to appear, cortex developes folds, and auditory information occurs, etc?
final three months
What does the apgar scale stand for?
Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration
What is a woman trained to support the pregnant woman called?
What is any agent or condition including viruses and drugs that result in birth defects and complications?
What does the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale measure?
reflexes and other behaviors
How many sets of primary reflexes are there?
What are the three primary reflexes?
1. maintaining oxygen 2. maintaining constant temp 3. managing feeding
What are the other four reflexes?
Babinski, Stepping, Palmar Grasping, Moro
What is the term for gaining eight or feeling indigestion and insecurity feeling pain during labor from the male?
"inadequacy and insecurity from the mother after birth which may result in inadequate baby care"
post partum depression
"the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard"
difference equals deficit error
"a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics"
cross sectional research
"the idea that some people are more vulnerable than others to certain experiences usually because of genetic differences"
"cooperation between a mother and father based on their mutual commitment to their children. In a parental alliance, the parents support each other in their shared parental roles"
What are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy, often before a woman even knows that she is pregnant. The two most common are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely.
neural tube defects
What does the science of human development seek to understand?
how and why people change over time
Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of what?
nature and nurture acting together
The life span perspective takes into account development from when to when?
conception to death
"the idea that human traits may change or stay the same over time"
What is empirical evidence based on?
observation, experience, or experiment
A correlation does not indicate that one variable causes the other to occur; rather ir indicates that there is what between the two variables?
What does the IRB stand for?
Institutional Review Board
An explanation of facts and observations defined by a set of concepts and ideas that organize phenomena is called what?
What is the correct order of the stages of Freud's psychosexual theory, from infancy to preschool years?
oral, anal, phallic
Behaviorists believe that psychologists should focus on what?
What theory did Piaget deal with?
A perspective that compares human thinking processes by analogy to computer analysis of date is called what?
information processing theory
What kinds of theories hold that all people share impulses and motivations?
Critics of behaviorism argue that the theory is too what?
Social learning theory indicates that learning occurs from what?
observing and imitating others
Every person begins life as a single cell, which is called what?
Each human has a total of about how many genes?
Cells that are able to produce any other cells are called what?
Down syndrome is also called what?
Most recessive genetic disorders are what?
The germinal period ends approximately how many weeks after conception?
The longest period of prenatal developement is the what period?
The apgar scale is used at one minute and five minutes after birth to do what with the newborn?
evaluate the health
Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, imparing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning, are called what?
A baby born three or more weeks early is called what?
Newborn babies do NOT have reflexes designed to do what?
adjust to difference between night and day
A father's presence at birth reduces what?
likelihoods of birth complications
What can postpartum depression be mitigate by?
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