module 9 research

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the entire group of interest to the researchers

a subset of the population that is accessible to the researcher

the selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population

how many to include in the study
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Terms in this set (30)
type of nonprob sampling: convenience sampling define problemsentails selecting the most conveniently available people as participants the people might be atypical of the population THE PRICE OF CONVENIENCE IS BIAS weakest form, but also the most commonly usedtypes of probability sampling: simple random stratified random systematicresearchers establish a sampling frame, a list of population subjects the population is first divided into two or more strata, from which subjects are randomly selected involves the selection of every kth case from a list, such as every 10th person on a patient listmore on simple random samplingthe most basic probability sampling subjects are numbered and a RANDOM SAMPLE GENERATOR is used to draw a random sample of the desired size NOT subject to researcher biasmore on stratified random samplingthe population is first divided into two or more strata, from which subjects are randomly selected AIM IS TO ENHANCE REPRESENTATIVENESS based on demographics, age, genderare nonprobability samples representative of the population? why use nonprobrarely - there is sampling bias with nonprob causing misleading results easy and cost efficientrandom assignment VS random samplingsignature of RCT, assigning subjects at random to a group, ensures each participant has equal chance of being assigned to control or intervention group method of selecting people for a study and NOT a signature of RCTs most RCTs do not have random sampling have an equal change to PARTICIPATE in the study SAMPLING IS HOW WE SELECT PARTICIPANTS ASSIGNMENT REFERS TO THE INTERVENTION AND CONTROL GROUPSif the report does not mention or describe the sampling design, it is usually safe to assume that what kind of sample was usedconveniencesample size is estimated through?power analysis - statistical procedure through which the researchers determine the minimum sample size required to test the effect of the intervention based on the relationship between level of significance, statistical power, and the effect size and sample sizelarge samples are NO assurance of accuracy... rather, it increases the sample representativeness and enhances the external validity, the probability of selecting atypical sample decreases as the sample size increases BUT the use of too many people wastes time, money, and effort a sample that is too small decreases the statistical conclusion validitythe higher the desired level of significance, the larger the what neededthe larger the sample sizewhere to find info about the sampling planusually discussed in method section or a subsection called sample or study participants sample characteristics such as average age are often described at the start of the results sectionA nurse researcher is studying the relationship between gender and stress level after cardiac surgery at a local hospital where males having cardiac surgery constitute 55% of cardiac surgery patients. The study sample constituted of 20% males and 80% females. This situation might lead to: History threat Enhanced external validity Mortality threat Maturation threat Sampling biassampling biasA researcher is studying nurses' attitudes toward evidence-based practice. The researcher created three sampling frames- one for nurses with years of experience of ten years or more, a second sampling frame for nurses with five to less than ten years of experience, and a third sampling frame for nurses who have less than 5 years of experience. The researcher used a random number generator to select 50 participants from each sampling frame. What type of sampling did the researcher use? Systematic sampling Simple random sampling Stratified random sampling Cluster samplingstratified randomWhich of the following is the definition of sampling in research studies? Determining who could participate in a study Selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population Identifying a set of criteria for selecting study participants Ensuring that every element in the population has an equal chance of being included in the studySelecting a subset of the population to represent the entire populationWhich of the following is considered the key criterion for evaluating sample quality in quantitative research studies? How ethically sound the recruitment strategy is How representativeness it is of the population How easy it is to recruit sample members How suitable the sample is to key stakeholdersHow representativeness it is of the populationA nurse researcher studying stress level among nursing students during exams recruits study participants by placing a recruitment poster at the entrance to the classroom. Which sampling approach did the researcher use in this study? Quota sampling Consecutive sampling Convenience sampling Snowball samplingconvenienceWhich of the following statements about sampling is correct? There is less risk of sampling bias with homogeneous populations than with heterogeneous populations The most basic units of a population are referred to as strata Samples that are not representative jeopardize the study's statistical conclusion validity Strata are a means of equating the accessible population with the target populationThere is less risk of sampling bias with homogeneous populations than with heterogeneous populationsWhich of the following refers to the technique the researchers use to estimate the minimum sample they need for their study?power analysisWhich method of probability sampling is most likely to yield a representative sample? simple random sampling Stratified random sampling Random assignment Convenience samplingstratified random samplingA nurse researcher is studying emergency room visits by parents of infants who were born preterm. After preparing a sampling frame, the researcher used a random number generator to select the study participants. What type of sampling did the researcher use? Nonprobability sampling Stratified random sampling Simple random sampling Convenience samplingsimple random sampling