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Chapter 2 test

chemical basis of life
STUDY
PLAY
chemistry
science that investigates matter and its interactions
element
all atoms with the same atomic #
recognize elements of the periodic table,examples:
K-potassium, O- oxygen, N- nitrogen
how many elements are known to be needed by living things?
26 elements
over 95% of the human body is made up of what four elements?
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen
list the parts of the atoms
protons, nuetrons, electrons
what is the characteristic of a proton in a atom
posotive charge and found in the nucleus
what is the characteristic of a nuetron in a atom
no charge found in the nucleus
what is the characteristic of a electron in a atom
negative charge and found on the outer shell
isotope
forms of an element whos atoms contain the same number of protons and nuetrons
gamma rays
the most penetraining form of radiation
which istope has the longest half life?
Ra, Radon
what isotope is used for thyroid treatment
iodine-131
what happens to electrons in a covalent bond
sharing of electrons
what happens to electrons in an ionic bond
transfer of electrons
what is different about a hydrogen bond?
weak negative charge
catabolism
takes place in an endergonic reaction
anabolism
tekes placei n a exoganic reaction
enzyme
a protien
what is an enzymes function?
catalyzes a biochemical reaction
acid
any substance that breaks apart in a solution to release hydrogen ions
base
a substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution
pH scale
<-1---------------------------7-------------------------------14->
extreme nuetal extreme
acid base
whats the difference in concentration from one step to another on the pH scale
its either more of a base or one step more toward an acid
acidosis
conditions of an acid
alkalosis
condition of alkaline (basic)
what are the 4 inorganic constituents of the body?
H2O, O2, CO2, salts
what is the function of the inorganic constituent H2O
stabalizes, body temperature, protection, lubracants
what is the function of the inorganic constituent O2
cellular organelles use O2 to release energy from glucose and other nutrients
what is the function of the inorganic constituent CO2
reacts with H2Oto form weak acid which ionizes
what is the function of the inorganic constituent salts
transports thing out of cells, maintains prople water concentration
carbohydrate
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a specific ratio
functions of a carbohydrate
provides energy for cells; stored as reserved energy
lipid
inorganic compound containing carbons, hydrogens and oxygens in a ration that does not approximate in 1:2:1
examples of lipid
fats, oils and waxes
what is the most common lipid?
fats
what are two steroids
cholestral and sex hormones
protien
a large polypeptide with a complex structure
what are the function of a protien
support structural materials for 3-d framework transprots hormones
protien denaturing
it makes the protiens lose its 3-d structure
what causes protien denaturing
high temp.
nucleic acid
a chain of nucleotides containing a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphat group and one of four nitrogen bases that regulate
what are the functions of nucleic acid
strong and also process information
what is DNA
deoxiribonucleic acid
what is RNA
ribosnucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid
stored info for cells to synthesize protien molecules, inherited characteristics
ribosnucleic acid
specific protien synthesis
what base pairs are associated with nucleic acid
thymine, adenine, unacil, guanine, and cytosine
what is the most important high energy compound for our cells
ATP