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invaders who destroyed the Egyptian empire in the late thirteenth century; otherwise unidentifiable because they went their own ways after their attacks on Egypt
people of modern day Sudan; worshipped Egyptian gods and used Egyptian hieroglyphs; their king swept through the and reunited theentire Nile Valley
culture that inhabited the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea; called "Purple People" or Phoenicians because of the remarkable purple dye they produced from certain sea snails; exported goods across middle east
city founded by Phoenicians in 813 B.C.E. , one day would struggle with Rome for domination of the western Mediterranean
people that migrated into Nile Delta looking for good land; only source about is the unreliable bible; followed leader Moses out of Egypt after being enslaved there and into Palestine
leader of the hebrews that lead them out of Egypt away from slavery to Palestine, the "promised land"
religious document that contains many myths and legends, as well as historical material
people that were greatest threat to Hebrews, had superior technology and military organization
leader of Hebrews; continued Saul's work and captured Jerusalem which he made the religious center of the realm
son of David; created a nation by dividing it into twelve territorial districts cutting across the old tribal borders; launched a building program that included cities, palaces, fortresses, and roads
period when the people of Judah were sent into exile in Babylonia (587-538 B.C.E.)
Role of Father and Mothers and their relationships with their sons and daughters
mothers taught young children and provided for mens physicals needs while they studied; fathers gave more of an education to their sons as they got older
Semitic people that dominated northern Mesopotamia, influenced by Babylonian culture, one of the most warlike people in history
Assyrian military tactics
excavations to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock defense down, had corps of engineers in military, could coordinate their efforts in open battle and siege warfare
Corps of Engineers
people in military who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming
Indo-Europeans from central Europe and southern Russia; migrated into the land between Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf
most important Iranian people, one of the greatest empires of the ancient near east; depended on diplomacy to rule; allowed conquered people to practice native customs and religions
Geographic impact of Iran's history
area was a highway between western and eastern Asia; nomadic people migrated from Russia and Central Asia towards Iran where they met urban dwellers
Cyrus the Great
king of Persians, had goals to win control of the west and thus of terminal ports of great trade routes that crossed Iran and Anatolia and to secure eastern Iran from the pressure of nomadic invaders
Examples of Cyrus' human decisions and actions
sparing life of Croesus, allowing conquered people to maintain culture and religion, restored sacred objects to Jews and returned them to Jerusalem where he helped build their temple
religious thinker and preacher who introduced new spiritual concepts to Iranian People, taught that life is a constant battleground between good and evil
religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster, who emphasized the individuals' responsibility to choose between good and evil, often meet with opposition thought the Persian ruler Darius was a convert, won converts through Iran under the protection of Persian kings
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