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58 terms

Unit 2 IDs

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Sea Peoples
invaders who destroyed the Egyptian empire in the late thirteenth century; otherwise unidentifiable because they went their own ways after their attacks on Egypt
Third Intermediate Period
dark age that lasted 400 years and had political fragmentation
Nubians
people of south Egypt that adopted many features of Egyptian culture
Kushites
people of modern day Sudan; worshipped Egyptian gods and used Egyptian hieroglyphs; their king swept through the and reunited theentire Nile Valley
Phoenicians
culture that inhabited the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea; called "Purple People" or Phoenicians because of the remarkable purple dye they produced from certain sea snails; exported goods across middle east
Purple People
Greek name for Phoenicians
Carthage
city founded by Phoenicians in 813 B.C.E. , one day would struggle with Rome for domination of the western Mediterranean
Phoenician Cultural Legacy
development of the alphabet
Hebrews
people that migrated into Nile Delta looking for good land; only source about is the unreliable bible; followed leader Moses out of Egypt after being enslaved there and into Palestine
Moses
leader of the hebrews that lead them out of Egypt away from slavery to Palestine, the "promised land"
Hebrew Bible
religious document that contains many myths and legends, as well as historical material
Philistines
people that were greatest threat to Hebrews, had superior technology and military organization
Amorites
relatives of Hammurabi's Babylonians
Canaanites
semitic-speaking people; mingled with Hebrews
Baal
ancient Semitic fertility god represented as a golden calf
Yahweh
only god of Hebrews
Saul
leader of Hebrews; established a monarchy of twelve Hebrew tribes to keep Philistines at bay
David
leader of Hebrews; continued Saul's work and captured Jerusalem which he made the religious center of the realm
Solomon
son of David; created a nation by dividing it into twelve territorial districts cutting across the old tribal borders; launched a building program that included cities, palaces, fortresses, and roads
Ark of the Covenant
chest that contained the holiest of Hebrew religious articles
Israel
northern half of Solomon's kingdom; capital at Samaria
Samaria
capital of Israel
Judah
southern half of Solomon's kingdom
Jerusalem
center of Israel and Judah
Babylonian Captivity
period when the people of Judah were sent into exile in Babylonia (587-538 B.C.E.)
Cyrus the Great
Persian king who permitted 40,000 exiles to return to Jerusalem
Jewish Family Life
nuclear family and mariage were very important in Jewish life
Role of Father and Mothers and their relationships with their sons and daughters
mothers taught young children and provided for mens physicals needs while they studied; fathers gave more of an education to their sons as they got older
Assyrians
Semitic people that dominated northern Mesopotamia, influenced by Babylonian culture, one of the most warlike people in history
Tiglath-pileser III
Assyrian king who conquered Syria, Palestine, and the two Jewish kingdoms
Sargon II
Assyrian king who defeated Egyptians
Assyrian military tactics
excavations to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock defense down, had corps of engineers in military, could coordinate their efforts in open battle and siege warfare
Corps of Engineers
people in military who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming
Medes and Babylonians
two groups of people who joined forces and took down the Assyrian Empire
612 BCE
year the Assyrian Empire was destroyed
Nineveh
chief capital of Assyrians on the Tigris River
Iranians
Indo-Europeans from central Europe and southern Russia; migrated into the land between Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf
Persians
most important Iranian people, one of the greatest empires of the ancient near east; depended on diplomacy to rule; allowed conquered people to practice native customs and religions
Geographic features of Persia
modern Iran; mountains and deserts; plateau surrounded by mountains
Geographic impact of Iran's history
area was a highway between western and eastern Asia; nomadic people migrated from Russia and Central Asia towards Iran where they met urban dwellers
Iranian Military Advantage
given by horses; could use chariots or men on horseback
Medes
Iranians who settled in Media in the north
Ecbatana
capital of Medes; modern Hamadan
Cyrus the Great
king of Persians, had goals to win control of the west and thus of terminal ports of great trade routes that crossed Iran and Anatolia and to secure eastern Iran from the pressure of nomadic invaders
Lydia
young kingdom in Anatolia overthrown by Persians
Croesus
conquered king of Lydia whose life was spared by Cyrus, as he became a friend and adviser
Examples of Cyrus' human decisions and actions
sparing life of Croesus, allowing conquered people to maintain culture and religion, restored sacred objects to Jews and returned them to Jerusalem where he helped build their temple
Zoroaster
religious thinker and preacher who introduced new spiritual concepts to Iranian People, taught that life is a constant battleground between good and evil
Ahuramazda
Iranian god who embodied good and truth, opposed by Ahirman
Ahriman
hateful spirit who stood for evil and lies, opposed by Ahuramazda
Zoroastrianism
religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster, who emphasized the individuals' responsibility to choose between good and evil, often meet with opposition thought the Persian ruler Darius was a convert, won converts through Iran under the protection of Persian kings
Darius (r. 521-486)
Persian ruler who converted to Zorastrianism, did not impose it on others
Cambyses (r. 530-522)
son of Cyrus, subdued Egypt
Xerxes (r. 486-464 BCE)
son of Darius, unsuccessfully invaded Greece
satrapy
territory governed by a satrap, a governor of a Persian province
geographic boundaries of Persian Empire
Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran, and western India
Persepolis
capital of Persia near modern day Schiras, Iran
Royal Road
main highway created by Persians; spanned 1677 miles from western Turkey to Iran