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Neuroscience Exam I
Terms in this set (132)
The spinal cord extends from the _____ to _____.
foramen magnum to L1
The spinal cord has ______ segments.
There are two separate points of attachment called _____ that connect a spinal nerve with its segment of the spinal cord.
The dorsal and ventral roots fuse laterally to form the _______.
The spinal nerves are part of the ______ nervous system.
The cell bodies of of sensory neurons are found in an enlarged region of the dorsal root called the _______.
dorsal root ganglion
The ______ (posterior) root contains sensory neuron axons that conduct impulses from the periphery into spinal cord.
The ______ (anterior) root contains motor neuron axons and conducts impulses away from the spinal cord to effectors in the periphery.
There are _______ pairs of spinal nerves.
The spinal nerve is a ______ nerve since it contains all sensory and all motor components of that particular spinal cord segment.
The spinal cord lesion results in loss from:
level of lesion and below.
The union of dorsal & ventral roots forms the
If you cut a tract, you lose all the information:
in the tract and below.
Dorsal root carries:
Ventral root carries:
Lie medial to & from spinal nerves, each is strictly motor OR sensory.
Lie distally to & are lateral branches of spinal nerves, and carry sensory AND motor fibers.
Al ventral rami branch and form complicated interlacing nerve networks called:
End of adult spinal cord, located below the lumbar enlargement:
Collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of vertebral canal:
Any localized damage to the spinal cord or its roots leads to some functional loss either _______ (loss of motor function) or _______ (sensory loss).
paralysis or paresthesias
Severe damage to the ventral root results in _____ of the skeletal muscles served. Nerve impulses do not reach muscles, muscles cannot move.
Without nerve impulses to stimulate muscles, the muscles:
When only motor neurons of primary motor cortex are damaged, _______ paralysis occurs.
Transection of spinal cord between T1 and L1, both lower limbs affected resulting in:
Injury that occurs in the cervical region of the spinal cord, all 4 limbs are affected resulting in:
Paralysis to 1 side of the body, usually reflects brain injury rather than spinal cord injury:
The number of pairs of cranial nerves:
Only _____ rami form plexues.
Cervical plexus is formed by the ventral rami of the first 4 cervical nerves. Most branches are ____ nerves that supply the skin.
The most important nerve in the cervical plexus is the _______ n. That supplies the diaphragm.
The ______ plexus innervate the upper limb.
The area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of single spinal nerves is called:
dermatome ("skin segment")
Elevated ridges of tissues in the cerebral hemispheres:
Shallow grooves in the cerebral hemisphere:
The brain processes sensory information in a 5 step process:
1. Sensory 2. Association, 3. Decision 4. Plan 5. Motor output
Location of Area 1:
Post central gyrus
making meaning out of sensory information
A TBI to Area 3 would result in:
a person having troubles making decisions
Location of Area 3:
Location of Area 5:
Pre central gyrus
The function of the cerebellum:
The structure that carries info across the brain:
Area _____ & ______ can occur on both sides:
1 & 5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Test Question
(1) post-central gyrus ---> corpus callosum (2,3,4) ----> corpus callosum (5)
When the 5 steps occur very quickly, the brain has seen a set of sensory info many times & has a set decision:
long term potentiation
When LTP occurs a _____ is formed.
What would happen if there was trauma to AREA 1?
opposite side of the body affected w/no sensory, fine motor function, can still feel L side
Trauma to AREA 5:
loss of 1 of the Area 5s
Dominant or Non-Dominant: Handedness
Dominant or Non-Dominant: Problem Solving
Dominant or Non-Dominant: Memory
Specific spots where specific functions are in the cortex:
locus of control
Kill a locus of control
lose that function
Speech Dominant Side 5 Steps:
1. Reception 2. Wiernicki's Area, 3. Decision, 4. Broca's Area, 5. Motor Response
Aphasia, person can't understand speech:
Aphasia, can't get speech out:
Aphasia, where both areas affected:
Learning for the first time:
Highly specialized nerve cells:
3 major parts of a neuron:
1.cell body, 2. axon 3.dendrites
A disease where there is a dopamine (neurotransmitter) deficit:
Multipolar neurons are:
Neurons bundled together are:
Damage to the Basal Ganglia affects:
A partial contraction of striated muscle:
Loss of inhibition of stretch reflex:
Good tone is
normal tone, resting tone while you're awake
Function of basal ganglia
helps produce and control tone
Example of temporary HIGH tone
anxiety, too much coffee
Example of temporary LOW tone
True or False, to function normally need partial tone
What kind of reflex triggers spasticity?
Bad Tone-Floppy Child
High tone, over a long period of time, Parkinsonism
shortening of tendons, synovial cartilage grows together, muscles grow together, frozen shoulder is
States of continuous contractions
weakness of muscle, can move
no tone, no motion
Astrocytes provide: & maintenance of:
nutrition & normal neuronal signaling
_____cells provide insulation (myelin) in PNS
_____cells provide myelin sheaths in the CNS
Neurons ability to grow new connections, regrowth of damaged axons:
Function of RAS
arouse and focus
process where a single neuronal axon may have many branches that terminate on a single neuron:
process by which multiple inputs from a variety of cells terminate on a single neuron.
Neurotransmitters are made at the ______ with ______.
cell body, chromosomes
Components of synapse:
axon terminal of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic membrane
site of communication between neurons
What is inside a synaptic cleft?
after impulse passes through membrane it:
goes back to where it was before
Ion channels are:
proteins that span the cell membrane
reduction in membrane potential
increase in membrane potential
Light touch (EPSP or IPSP)
Pain (EPSP or IPSP)
Receptor has connectors with same synapse. 2 receptors, 2 neurons
Reflexes occur at
subcortical, below cortex
components of simple reflex arc
sensory neuron, internueron, multipolar neuron
Guillian Barre Syndrome, Demyelination
PNS, Schwann Cells
Ability of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, and structure
simplest forms of neuroplasticity
New learning and memory =
growth of new synapses, LTP
occurs when dendrites of neighboring neurons reinnervate a denervated
occurs when an axon, its target cell, have been damaged
pain and weakness
layers of skin outside neurons, forms CNS & PNS
inside of digestive system, can see on lips
neural tube forms
neural crest forms
sensory organ in the muscle
Multipolar neuron AKA
alpha motor neuron, final common pathway
Gamma motor system 3 neurons
upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, alpha motor neuron
muscle spindle contracts, produces
alpha voluntary motor
striated muscle fiber
tone connects to muscle spindle
emotions and behaviros
in spinal cord
pain and temp crosses
in spinal cord
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