English Semester Final Overview

participal phrase
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Terms in this set (27)
-begins with a noun and is followed with an adjective or adjective phrase
-(nouns + adjective)
-Absolute phrases can be removed from the sentence and the sentence will still make sense

-(Arm dangling from my side), I realized a trip to the ER was inevitable.
Explanation: Arm=noun + dangling from my side=adjective in the form a participial phrase describing arm.

-Sadie, (hand in the air), eagerly shared her response!
Explanation: hand=noun + in the air=adjective in the form of a prepositional phrase describing hand.

-He was dejected as he walked out of the room, (head down).
Explanation: head=noun + down=the adjective describing head.

-plain old adjective: Heart (heavy), I entered into the funeral home.

-a participle or participial phrase:
Eyes (begging), Gracie knew it was "treat time"!

-an adjective prepositional phrase: Treat (in her mouth), Gracie raced to her favorite spot to enjoy herself.
verb that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.
(nouns - people, places, things, ideas)

nouns that play as subject, direct object, indirect object, object of preposition

always end in -ing

Gerunds examples:
Subject: "Winning is the only option"
Predicate Nominative: "The only option in winning."
Direct Object: "She loved winning more than she hated losing"
Object of Preposition: "She learned to win by losing often."
a noun that restates a noun or pronoun next to it.

-Janie's second husband (Joe) is similar to her first husband Logan.

My cat (Odie) has a urinary tract infection. Because I have 3 cats, it is essential for me to identify by name the cat I'm referencing.

My car Odie, (an 18 year old feline), has outlived all other animals on the farm.
-the basic form of a verb, without an inflection binding it to a particular subject or tense
-to + verb
-can act as nouns, adverbs, adjectives

-Noun: "To understand infinitives is Ms. Sippel's goal for her students."
-Adjective: "Her goal, to have her students understand infinitives, was easier than expected."
-Adverb: "She practiced daily to be the best grammarian in the class."
-words or phrases that appeal to the senses, used to describe persons, objections, actions, feelings, and ideas

-"As I listened to those songs, in memory's eye I could see those staggering columns of the First World War, bending under soggy packs, on many a weary march from dripping dusk to drizzling dawn, slogging ankle-deep through the mire of shell-shocked roads, to form grimly for the attack, blue-lipped, covered with sludge and mud, chilled by the wind and rain, driving home to their objective, and for many, to the judgment seat of God."
-a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration used for either serious or comic effect

-"I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together."
- a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, often creating an effect of surprise and wit.

"The Fellow of No Delicacy," concerns Sydney Carton, whose manners may seem indelicate but who is willing to sacrifice for others, even eventually substituting his own life for Charles Darnay's. Thus the juxtaposition of the two chapters highlights the character traits of each man
-a stated comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words like or as

-"We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream."
-is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
-it helps to establish a strong rhythm and produces a powerful emotional effect

-"And what sort of soldiers are those you are to lead? Are they reliable? Are they brave? Are they capable of victory?"

-"What a face he had, now that it was almost on a level with mine! What a great nose! And what a mouth! And what large prominent teeth!" (27).
The repetition of "what a __ [Mr. Brocklehurst] had" reflects Jane's childish assessment of each of his features
periodic sentence-has its main clause at the end of the sentence -It forces the reader to retain information from the beginning of the sentence and often builds to a climactic statement with meaning unfolding slowly example: -"Having seen Adele comfortably seated in her little chair by Mrs. Fairfax's parlour fireside, and given her her best wax doll (which I usually kept enveloped in silver paper in a drawer) to play with, and a storybook for change of amusement; and having replied to her 'Revenez bientot, ma bonne amie, ma chere Mdlle. Jeannette,'* with a kiss, I set out" (97). (* "Come back soon, my good friend, my dear Miss Janie.") Explanation: -With the dependent grammatical units placed before the independent clause at the end, Brontë captures Jane's preparations for leaving on her fateful walk to Hay, building up to her main pointParallelism-refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. -It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased: example: -"The burden must be carried; the want provided for; the suffering endured; the responsibility fulfilled" (286). -"Be one of the few, the proud, the Marines." -"[T]he torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage."Antithesis-a contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction (a-b-a-b) -a device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effect example: -"I did not come to abolish , but to fulfill ." —Matthew 5:17b -"To err is human ; to forgive, divine ." —Alexander Pope -"They are your rallying points: to build courage when courage seems to fail; to regain faith when there seems to be little cause for faith; to create hope when hope becomes forlorn."cumulative sentence-has its main clause at the beginning of the sentence example: ntit Explanation: -This sentence with its initial independent clause and its added-on descriptive units recreates the sounds of Rochester's riding towards Jane on the road to Hay as she hears them and tries to make sense of the sounds.Metaphor-a comparison of two unlike things not using like or as example: -"And, if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor . . . ."Oxymoron-a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression example: -"He was now sufficiently composed to order a funeral of modest magnificence, suitable at once to the rank of a Nouradin's profession, and the reputation of his wealth."allusion-a reference to a mythological, literary, or historical person, place or thing example: -"So it was at Lexington and Concord. So it was a century ago at Appomattox. So it was last week in Selma, Alabama."Personification-a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics example: -"And let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house."SymbolismA device in literature where an object represents an idea. example: -the color white stands for purity, black represents evil, roses stand for romance, a butterfly symbolizes transformation and a dog can represent loyalty.Logosfacts common sense cause/effect comparison/contrast statistics precedent researchpathosimagery sound devices figurative language connotative dictionethosStating qualifications or personal experience using first-person pronouns using specialized languageLogical Ethicalreferences to experts citing authorityEmotional EthicalAllusions Humor celebrity endorsementslogical emotional ethicaldiction personal anecdoteLogical Emotionalsyntax detailsMLA format1 inch margins double spaced 12 font times new roman heading = upper left, double spaced name, teachers name, name of class, date date: number date, month, tear