# English Semester Final Overview

participal phrase
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Terms in this set (27)
-begins with a noun and is followed with an adjective or adjective phrase
-Absolute phrases can be removed from the sentence and the sentence will still make sense

Examples:
-(Arm dangling from my side), I realized a trip to the ER was inevitable.
Explanation: Arm=noun + dangling from my side=adjective in the form a participial phrase describing arm.

-Sadie, (hand in the air), eagerly shared her response!
Explanation: hand=noun + in the air=adjective in the form of a prepositional phrase describing hand.

-He was dejected as he walked out of the room, (head down).

-plain old adjective: Heart (heavy), I entered into the funeral home.

-a participle or participial phrase:
Eyes (begging), Gracie knew it was "treat time"!

-an adjective prepositional phrase: Treat (in her mouth), Gracie raced to her favorite spot to enjoy herself.
verb that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.
(nouns - people, places, things, ideas)

nouns that play as subject, direct object, indirect object, object of preposition

always end in -ing

Gerunds examples:
Subject: "Winning is the only option"
Predicate Nominative: "The only option in winning."
Direct Object: "She loved winning more than she hated losing"
Object of Preposition: "She learned to win by losing often."
a noun that restates a noun or pronoun next to it.

examples:
-Janie's second husband (Joe) is similar to her first husband Logan.

essential:
My cat (Odie) has a urinary tract infection. Because I have 3 cats, it is essential for me to identify by name the cat I'm referencing.

nonessential:
My car Odie, (an 18 year old feline), has outlived all other animals on the farm.
-the basic form of a verb, without an inflection binding it to a particular subject or tense
-to + verb

examples:
-Noun: "To understand infinitives is Ms. Sippel's goal for her students."
-Adjective: "Her goal, to have her students understand infinitives, was easier than expected."
-Adverb: "She practiced daily to be the best grammarian in the class."
-words or phrases that appeal to the senses, used to describe persons, objections, actions, feelings, and ideas

example:
-"As I listened to those songs, in memory's eye I could see those staggering columns of the First World War, bending under soggy packs, on many a weary march from dripping dusk to drizzling dawn, slogging ankle-deep through the mire of shell-shocked roads, to form grimly for the attack, blue-lipped, covered with sludge and mud, chilled by the wind and rain, driving home to their objective, and for many, to the judgment seat of God."
-a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration used for either serious or comic effect

example:
-"I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together."
- a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, often creating an effect of surprise and wit.

example:
"The Fellow of No Delicacy," concerns Sydney Carton, whose manners may seem indelicate but who is willing to sacrifice for others, even eventually substituting his own life for Charles Darnay's. Thus the juxtaposition of the two chapters highlights the character traits of each man
-a stated comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words like or as

example:
-"We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream."
-is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
-it helps to establish a strong rhythm and produces a powerful emotional effect

example:
-"And what sort of soldiers are those you are to lead? Are they reliable? Are they brave? Are they capable of victory?"

-"What a face he had, now that it was almost on a level with mine! What a great nose! And what a mouth! And what large prominent teeth!" (27).
Explanation:
The repetition of "what a __ [Mr. Brocklehurst] had" reflects Jane's childish assessment of each of his features