Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


the ability to do work

Law of Conservation of energy

energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed

Kinetic Energy

the energy of motion

Potential Energy

energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement

Chemical Energy

energy from chemical reactions

Electrical Energy

result of an electron or electronic charge passing through an electric potential

Thermal Energy

result of atomic or molecular motion

Nuclear Energy

result of energy contained in the nucleus of an atom

Radioactive Energy

energy emitting from the nucleus

Electromagnetic Energy

an electric and magnetic disturbance traveling through space at the speed of light


Anything that takes up space and has mass.


a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe


Einstein's equation proposing that energy has mass; E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light


the transfer of energy by waves moving through space


referring to matter that intercepts radiation and absorbs part or all of it; exposed

Ionizing radiation

radiation that can dislodge electrons from atoms to form ions

Man Made Radiation

medical xrays, nuclear medicine, consumer products and nuclear power are examples of what type of radiation

Naturally Occuring Radiation

-cosmic rays
-terrestrial radiation (rocks, buildings)
-inside human body
-radon in the air

300 mrem

how much radiation you are exposed to being alive per year

5 rem

Limit of rems allowed each year

Equator at Sea Level

where is the best place to live because vanhalen belts and atmosphere belts are protecting you


pertaining to the body


cancer and genetic defects are examples of what


Describes biologic radiation effects that are predictable and their intensity is does-dependent. These effects occur only after a certain threshold amount of exposure has been received


Pertains to transmitted hereditary characteristics because of radiation


As Low As Reasonably Achievable

LET-Linear Energy Transfer

____ is a measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue.

LD 50/30

Lethal dose for 50% of the population over 30 days

LD 50/60

the amount of radiation necessary to kill 50% of a population within 60 days

Discovery of X-ray

November 8, 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen


Production of captured shadow images on photographic film through the action of ionizing radiation passing through the body from an external source


procedure for viewing the interior of the body using x-rays and projecting the image onto a television screen

Potential Difference

difference in electric potential (voltage) between two points


a unit of measurement equal to 1000 volts


The movement of electric charge; the flow of electrons through an electric circuit.


energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor


1/1000 of an ampere

Exposure time

is directly proportional to the number of electrons crossing the tube and is therefore directly proportional to the number of x-rays created

Roentgen unit

measures exposed based on ionization of air
Unit of measurement used for radiation dosage

1 Roentgen unit

2.08X10(9th) ion pairs/cm(3) equal what
2.58X10(-4) C/kg (81 unit)




radiation absorbed dose

1 Rad

10 mGy=?

1 Gray

100 rad=?


this equals Rad X QF=DE (dose equivalent)

1 Seivert (Sv)

100 rem=?


This = absorbed dose X qualifying factor


Radiation equivalent man
biological absorbed dose and how damaging


QF for x-ray, gamma ray. and beta radiation


QF for thermal nertrons


QF for alpha particles


QF for slow neutrons


QF for medium neurtrons


QF for fast neutrons


a unit of radioactivity equal to the amount of a radioactive isotope that decays at the rate of 37,000,000,000 disintegrations per second

Electron Volt

A unit for expressing the kinetic energy of subatomic particles; the energy acquired by an electron when it is accelerated by a potential difference of 1 volt; equals 1.6 x 10⁻¹² erg or 23.1 kilocalories/mole (abbreviation: eV).

Unstable element

when the number of neutrons greatly out numbers the number of protons that means what?

Alpha particle

a positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons

Beta particle

a proton or neutron that spontaneously changes itself and a new particle is created


If a particle loses a proton it changes its what

Atomic mass

If a particle loses a neutron it changes its what


come from the nucleus of unstable atom


produced within electron clouds

Exposure rate X time

Time exposure=?
reduce time to make low as possible


make as much of this between you and the rays as possible
(inverse square law)

Shielding/protective barriers

you do this to patients and ourselves to protect us

Primary barrier

lead in walls and under table in the central beam

Secondary barrier

helps to prevent scatter and leakage of radiation, lead doors, glass

Fixed or movable barriers

any lead that moves

Benefit over weighs risk

benefit of image should always out weigh risk of exposure

2.5 mm Al equivalent

this is what cuts down the amount of photons to parts of the body

Skin Distance

at least 15 inches between tube and skin

NCRP (national council of radiological protection)

they come up with the radiation limits for occupational dose limits, and non occupational limits

5 rem (50 mSv)

NCRP Stochastic effect (annual) for occupational is what

15 rem (150 mSv)

NCRP Nonstochastic effect for lens of eye for occupational is what

50 rem (500 mSv)

NCRP Nonstochastic effect for all other body parts other than the lens for occupational is what

1(x age in years) rem or 10(x age in years) mSv

Lifetime cumulative exposure

.5 rem for 9 months of year

pregnant worker limited by embryo/fetus dose limits

.5 rem (5.0 mSv)

NCRP Effective dose limit for infrequent exposure for nonoccupational public exposure for a year

.1 rem (1 mSv)

NCRP Effective dose limit for frequent exposure for nonoccupational public exposure for a year

1.5 rem 15 mSv

NCRP Effective dose limit for eye exposure for nonoccupational public exposure for a year

5 rem (50 mSv)

NCRP Effective dose limit for skin and extremity exposure for nonoccupational public exposure for a year

.1 rem (1.0 mSv)

NCRP Effective dose limit for trainees under 18 for nonoccupational public exposure for a year

.5 rem (5 mSv)

NCRP dose for embryo for nonoccupational for total dose

.05 rem (.5 mSv)

NCRP dose for embryo for nonoccupational for 1 month

.001 rem (.01 mSv)

NCRP dose for negligible for nonoccupational

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording