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63 terms

APES CHAPTER 2

STUDY
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atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
proton
positively charged particle of an atom
neutron
a subatomic particle that has the same mass as a proton but no electric charge
electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle
hypothesis
an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
cells
the basic unit of all living things
chemical change
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
chemical formula
a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
chromosome
distinct thread-like structures located in the nucleus composed of the genetic information of the cell
compounds
substances formed by the joining of elements through chemical bonding. every molecule of a compound is the same.
deductive reasoning
Thinking that moves from general principles to specific cases. Two or more premises used to reach a conclusion. The conclusion is ALWAYS true if premises are true
electromagnetic radiation
radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge
elements
simple substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
energy
The capacity to do work or to produce heat
energy efficiency
the amount of useful energy that can come from a system
energy productivity
the same as energy efficiency, a measure of how much useful work is accomplished by a particular input of energy into a system
energy quality
A measure of an energy's source's ability to do useful work.
experiments
a research method in which the investigator manipulates one ormore factors to observe their effect on some behavior or mental proce while controlling other relevent factors by random assingment of subjects
feedback loop
Occurs when an output of matter, energy, or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system.
first law of thermodynamics
states that energy is conserved. It is neither created nor destroyed underneath normal conditions.
flows
a throughput of matter and energy within the system at certain rates, and outputs to the environment.
frontier science
Preliminary scientific data, hypotheses, and models that have not been widely tested and accepted
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
heat
the transfer of thermal energy
high-quality energy
energyconcentrated at a high capacity to do useful work
high-quality matter
highly concentrated, found near the earth's surface and has great potential as a resource
inductive reasoning
inferring general principles from specific examples
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain carbon
inputs
resources such as energy, matter and information from the environment entering a system
isotopes
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
law of conservation of matter
the idea that matter is neither created nor destroyed in only changes form
low-quality energy
Energythat is dispersed and has little ability to do useful work. Ex: low temp heat
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
matter quality
a measure of how useful a substance is, based on availability, accessibility, and concentration
molecule
the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
natural radioactive decay
A nuclear change in which unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast-moving chunks of matter (alpha or beta particles), high-energy radiation (gamma rays), or both at a fixed rate.
negative feedback loop
A feedback loop that causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving
nuclear change
Occurs when nuclei of certain isotopes spontaneously change or are made to change into nuclei of different isotopes.
nuclear fission
A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
nuclear fusion
the combination of the nuclei of small atoms to form a larger nucleus; releases energy
organic compounds
carbon-based molecules (most abundant compound besides water)
paradigm shift
Rare, radical changes in thought or scientific views.
pH
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
physical change
one in which the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition
positive feedback loop
Causes a system to change further in the same direction.
potential energy
stored energy that is latent but available for use. A rock poised at the top of a hill or water stored behind a dam are examples.
radioactive isotopes
their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate of time
radioisotopes
heavier isotopes that are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable
science
Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation
scientific (natural) law
A description of what scientists find happening in nature repeatedly in thesame way without exception.
scientific hypothesis
is a testable assumption, or guess, often used to explain an observed phonomenon
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
second law of thermodynamics
any conversion of heat energy to useful work, some of the initial energy input is always converted to low quality, more dispersed, less useful energy.
synergistic interaction
Interaction of two or more factors or processes so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects
synergy
the interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects
system
a collection of structures, cycles, and processes that relate to and interact with each other
throughputs
rate of flow of matter, energy and information into a system - a process that allows input to be changed so it is useful to system (text example: gasoline to car)
time delays
Time lag between the input of a stimulus into a system and the response to the stimulus