Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Biology Chapter 3! Ecology!
In which Ecology and energy pyramids and ecosystems and cycles of matter are all discussed.
Terms in this set (53)
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between them and their enviroment
Contains combined portions of the planet in which all life exists: extends from 8 km above the surface to 11 km below the ocean surface. Highest level of organization studied!
Organisms so similar that they can BREED AND PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING
Groups of individuals in the same species living in one area
Assemblages of different populations living together in a defined area
Collection of all organisms and their physical environment in a given place
Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant community
The first step in asking ecological questions, or in forming experiments and models. Ex: What species live there, how many individuals in a species are there, etc.
Experiments can be used to test hypotheses. Can be set up in an artificial environment or in natural ecosystems.
Many ecological phenomena occur over long periods of time or over a large scale and cannot be tested; they often consist of mathematical formulas based on data from observation/experimentation.
is the main source of energy for life on earth
Use energy from the environment to make simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules, capture energy from the sun of from chemicals
Also called autotrophs, get energy from sunlight or chemical energy, necessary for the flow of energy
the process by which producers turn sunlight into carbs like sugars and starches: Adds oxygen and removes CO2 from the atmosphere
Autotrophs On Land
Autotrophs in the Water
Cynobacteria, Photosynthetic Bacteria
the process by which organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, used by several type of bacteria, and bacteria that live in remote places like volcanic vents or hot springs
Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food, also called CONSUMERS
Type of heterotroph, gets energy from plants, deer, cows, caterpillars
Type of heterotroph, gets energy from other animals, snakes, dogs, owls
Type of heterotroph, gets energy from plants and animals, humans, bears, crows
Type of heterotroph, feed on remains of dead matter, mites, earthworms, snails
Break down organic matter, bacteria, fungi
From the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs and then to heterotrophs
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
When the feeding relationships among various organisms form a network of complex interactions
each step in the food chain or web, first level=producers
A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained with each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
Shows the energy available at each trophic level. Only ten percent of energy is passed on to the next level, the rest is consumed for life processes or released as heat
Shows the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level, or the amount of potential food in each level of an ecosystem
The amount of living tissue in a trophic level, in grams of organic matter per unit area
Pyramid of Numbers
Shows the relative amount of individual organisms at each trophic level, not always the traditional shape because there can sometimes be more consumers than producers
Matter is recycled...
Within and between ecosystems through biogeochemical cycles
Bio - life, Geo - earth, Chem -
The Water Cycle
Required for life, moves between ocean, atmosphere and land
How water enters the atmosphere as a gas, from the ocean
How water enters the atmosphere as a gas, evaporates from the leaves of plants
Moist air rises and cools, water condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds
Droplets in clouds become large, water returns to earth as solid or liquid
Precipitation runs along the ground and enters a river or stream that carries it back to an ocean, or SEEPS into the soil and enters plants through the ROOTS starting the cycle again
Living things need nutrients, which are passed around in biogeochemical cycles, CARBON NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS
Especially important, key ingredient to living things
Carbon Cycle Processes
Biological Processes (photosynthesis) Geochemical Processes (release of CO2 by volcanoes) Mixed Biogeochemical Processes (such as the burial of remains and their conversion into coal and petroleum) Human Activity (mining, fossil fuels, pressure of the overlying earth)
Released as CO2 from respiration, volcanic activity, human activity, decomposition. Plants take it in and turn it into Carbohydrates, which are passed along food webs to other animals. Calcium carbonate also formed by marine organisms and acculmulates in marine sediments. These then break down and carbon returns to the atmosphere.
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen gas, N2, found in the atmosphere. Filters through soil and into the roots of legumes, where it turns into ammonia, which is made into nitrates and nitrites, which are used by producers to make proteins, which are eaten by consumers who die and return nitrogen to the soil where some remains ammonia and some is converted back to gas in denitrification
Needed for organisms to make amino acids
When bacteria in the roots of plants convert nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3) which is then converted into nitrates (NO3-) and nitrites (NO2-)
Other soil bacteria convert ammonia into nitrogen gas to release it back into the atmosphere
Forms DNA and RNA, uncommon in the biosphere, doesn't enter the atmosphere
The Phosphorus Cycle
Rocks w/Phosphate gradually wear down and phosphate is released, washes into oceans, is used by marine organisms. Phosphate also stays on land, cycles between soil and organisms
The rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
A substance that limits the productivity of an ecosystem because it is scarce or cycles slowly
when an aquatic ecosystem gets too much of a limiting nutrient, and there's a huge boom in algae and other producers
Sets found in the same folder
Biology Chapter 3 Ecology Test
Biology Chapter 7
Chapter 2 Bio!
Ch. 4 Biology
Sets with similar terms
Biology Chapter 3 - The Biosphere
Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 3
Science the Biosphere
Chapter 3: The Biosphere
Other sets by this creator
THEORY 51B QUIZ 1
Chapter 12 DNA and RNA
Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration
Other Quizlet sets
Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 3
more vocab on the biosphere
Prentice Hall: Ecology 6th Grade