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loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords
the lesser lords in the exchange of land in feudalism, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord
exchange of pledges that the relationship between lords and vassals was established within
heart of a medieval economy, the lord's estate, includes multiples villages and land as well as peasants that worked there
sacred rites of the Church that the priest gave to people in the manor villages- belief that participating in them would lead to everlasting life with God
developed specifically by the medieval Church. applied to religious teaching, the clergy, marriages, and morals
most severe and terrifying penalty that a person may face for disobeying Church law- people could not receive sacraments or a Christian burial- just one person
an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and a Christian burial
obligated to give military service to the lord and protect vassal, were constantly at war and lived in castles
worked on land for the lord and provided other services and fees, were self sufficient and had harsh living conditions
to protect their interests, merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord or king for "written document"
bill of exchange
a merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city and the banker issued a bill of exchange for cash in a distant city
Pope Innocent III
author of "On the Misery of the Human Condition" about the hot, wormy hell, and the long list of negative adjectives about humans
The apostle who wrote a letter to the Romans to try and convert them to Christianity, showing an un-adulterated view of Christians
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