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loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords


the lesser lords in the exchange of land in feudalism, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord

feudal contract

exchange of pledges that the relationship between lords and vassals was established within


estate, included buildings, towns, and peasants

liege lord

the lord to which a vassal owed his first loyalty


heart of a medieval economy, the lord's estate, includes multiples villages and land as well as peasants that worked there


peasants on a manor who were bound there and not free


local region


sacred rites of the Church that the priest gave to people in the manor villages- belief that participating in them would lead to everlasting life with God


a tax equal to 10% of a person's income that the Church requests in order to support itself


worldly- Church became the most powerful secular force in medieval Europe

papal supremacy

authority over all secular rulers, claimed by medieval popes

canon law

developed specifically by the medieval Church. applied to religious teaching, the clergy, marriages, and morals


most severe and terrifying penalty that a person may face for disobeying Church law- people could not receive sacraments or a Christian burial- just one person


an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and a Christian burial


obligated to give military service to the lord and protect vassal, were constantly at war and lived in castles


worked on land for the lord and provided other services and fees, were self sufficient and had harsh living conditions


to protect their interests, merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord or king for "written document"


money for investment, spurred growth of banking houses


many merchants joined together in an organization

bill of exchange

a merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city and the banker issued a bill of exchange for cash in a distant city

tenant farmer

most peasants became this- they paid rent for their land and hired farm laborers

middle class

stood between nobles and peasants


lending money with interest


in medieval towns, merchants and artisans merchants and artisans formed these associations


trainee to a guild master


salaried worker


outbreaks of rapid spreading disease


rising prices


ideas contrary to Church teachings

long bow

new weapon weilded by english archers that shot out 3 arrows at once

Pope Innocent III

author of "On the Misery of the Human Condition" about the hot, wormy hell, and the long list of negative adjectives about humans

Dante Alighieri

Author of the poem, "The Divine Comedy" about the 9 circles of hell

Jan van Eyck

Painted "The Last Judgement", an image of heaven, hell, and purgatory


The apostle who wrote a letter to the Romans to try and convert them to Christianity, showing an un-adulterated view of Christians

John Chrysostom

Writes a passage that demonizes Jews

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