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35 terms

Nutrition and Diet Therapy

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absorption
process of taking in nutrients by the body
amino acids
make up proteins
anorexia
loss of appetite
atherosclerosis
arteries are narrowed by accumulation of fatty substances on their inner surfaces
bland diet
easily digested food that does not irritate the digestive tract
calorie
amount of heat produced during metabolism
carbohydrates
major source of energy, starches, sugars, easily digested
cellulose
fibrous, indigestible form of plant carbohydrate; provides bulk and causes regular bowl movements
cholesterol
fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats; excess contributes to atherosclerosis
diabetic diet
body does not produce enough insulin; sugary food avoided
digestion
breaks down the food we eat
essential nutrients
composed of chemical elements found in the body; when used, replaced by food
fat-restricted diets
low fat intake; obese patients, patients with gallbladder and liver disease or atherosclerosis
fats
lipids, concentrated from energy, maintain body temp, cushions organs, aid in absorption of fat vitamins
hypertension
high blood pressure; excess amount of fat or salt in the diet
liquid diets
both clear and full; nutritionally inadequate and should only be used for short periods of time
lipids
also called fats
low-cholesterol diet
restrict foods with cholesterol, atherosclerosis and heart disease
low-residue diet
limits foods that are high in bulk and fiber
malnutrition
state of poor nutrition caused by poor diet or illness
metabolism
use of nutrients by the body
minerals
inorganic elements found in all body tissues, regulate body functions
nutrients
substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life
nutrition
digestion, metabolism, circulation, elimination
nutritional status
state of one's nutrition
obesity
excessive body weight 20 percent or more above the average recommended weight
osteoporosis
bones become porous and break easily because of long term deficiency of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D
protein diets
low-protein or high protein; low->patients with renal disease or allergies, high->children, growth delayed, pregnant women, pre or post operation, burns, fevers, infections
protein
build and repair body tissue, provide heat and energy, help produce antibodies
regular diet
balanced diet usually used for the patient with no dietary restrictions
sodium-restricted diet
avoid adding salt to food, for patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, edema
soft diet
foods must be easily chewed and easy to digest
therapeutic diet
modifications of the normal diet and are used to improve specific health conditions
vitamins
organic compounds essential to life, regulate body functions, repair body tissues
wellness
state of good health with optimal body function; good nutrition