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27 terms

Chemistry Ch 4: Atoms

pg 97-
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Electromagnatic radiation
Form of energy that exhibits wavelike characteristics and travels through space.
Electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of electromagnetic radiation
x-rays, to UV rays, to infared light, to micro waves to radio waves.
Speed of light
c, 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
Wavelength
distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves (distance unit)
visible light
part of the electrtomagnetic spectrum from 400 to 700 nm. (colors)`
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second. (waves/second
Hertz
waves/second
speed of light Equation
c=(wavelength(frequency)
(frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength)
Photoelectric effect
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
frequency determines electrons emitted*
Quantum
minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
equation for Energy
relationship between a quantum of energy and frequency
e=(plank's contant)frequency
Energy is proportional to frequency
Planck's constant
6.626 x 10^-34 (joules x seconds)
Photon
particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
Energy of Photon = (h)frequency
Dual wave-particle nature
einstein introduced that light can sometimes be in the form of a wave or as a particle
ground state (of energy)
the lowest possible state of energy of an atom
Excited state
state at which the atom has a higher potential energy that its grounded state
(electron gives off energy in form of electromagentic radiation from excited state to get back to ground state)
Energy of photon emitted
the energy of a photon emitted is equal to the difference in energy between the atoms' initial state and it's final state.
Bohr Model
electrons follow orbits specified around nucleus
Absorption
energy must be added to an electron of lower energy to get to a higher energy level
energy of absorbed or emitted photon corresponds to a particular frequency of emitted light
de Broglie
said that electrons are like waves around the nucleus
diffraction
bending of light wave as it passes by the edge of an object or small opening
interference
when waves overlap
heisenburg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other atomic particle
quantum theory
mathematically describes the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
orbital
three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
quantum numbers
specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
4 types of quantum number
main energy level, shape, orientation of orbital and spin of orbital