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pg 97-

Electromagnatic radiation

Form of energy that exhibits wavelike characteristics and travels through space.

Electromagnetic spectrum

all forms of electromagnetic radiation
x-rays, to UV rays, to infared light, to micro waves to radio waves.

Speed of light

c, 3.00 x 10^8 m/s


distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves (distance unit)

visible light

part of the electrtomagnetic spectrum from 400 to 700 nm. (colors)`


the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second. (waves/second



speed of light Equation

(frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength)

Photoelectric effect

the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
frequency determines electrons emitted*


minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom

equation for Energy

relationship between a quantum of energy and frequency
e=(plank's contant)frequency
Energy is proportional to frequency

Planck's constant

6.626 x 10^-34 (joules x seconds)


particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
Energy of Photon = (h)frequency

Dual wave-particle nature

einstein introduced that light can sometimes be in the form of a wave or as a particle

ground state (of energy)

the lowest possible state of energy of an atom

Excited state

state at which the atom has a higher potential energy that its grounded state
(electron gives off energy in form of electromagentic radiation from excited state to get back to ground state)

Energy of photon emitted

the energy of a photon emitted is equal to the difference in energy between the atoms' initial state and it's final state.

Bohr Model

electrons follow orbits specified around nucleus


energy must be added to an electron of lower energy to get to a higher energy level
energy of absorbed or emitted photon corresponds to a particular frequency of emitted light

de Broglie

said that electrons are like waves around the nucleus


bending of light wave as it passes by the edge of an object or small opening


when waves overlap

heisenburg uncertainty principle

states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other atomic particle

quantum theory

mathematically describes the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles


three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron

quantum numbers

specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals

4 types of quantum number

main energy level, shape, orientation of orbital and spin of orbital

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