Graphic Design and Color

Basic, fundamental must-know information about graphic design and color theory
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Hue
Color represented in light
Value
Level of Lightness or Darkness of color
Saturation
Brightness or Dullness of color
Subtractive Primary colors
2 types: CMY and RYB, basis for color theory
Four color process
CYMB (cyan yellow magenta black) full color art
Opponent Theory
Using All CMYK (cyan magenta yellow black)
Primary Colors in Light
RGB (red green blue) can combine to make any color
Primary Colors in Pigment
MCYB pigments reflect some color and absorb or cancel others
Wavelength
Distance between repeating units of a wave
Spectral hues
hue present in spectrum of colors by splitting white light with prism ROGYBIV
CMYK
cyan magenta yellow black subtractive colors
RGB
Red green blue additive colors
RYB
Red Yellow Blue Primary colors
Tertiary
combines 2 secondary colors (or primary and adjacent)
Principle Hues
RYGRP red yellow green blue
purple
Reflected
What we see as color - subtractive color
subtractive color
produced by reflective light
color constancy
human eye and brain perceives colors accurately under different lighting conditions
After images
complimentary color images seen by eye in response to overstimulation or fatigue
Tactile texture
Can physically touch .. also called actual
visual texture
created by hand..illusion of texture
Pattern
Repetition of visual element
High contrast
high key very white
high contrast - vivid
Low contrast
Low Key - dark, black
Low contrast - very dark
figure ground
Relationship of shapes
Positive - shape itself
Negative - space around shape
Equivocal space
shapes are interchangeable..ambiguous (romeo and juliet graphic, heart and cross between them, i.e.)
figure Ground Reversal
arranged to equally represent either positive or negative
Color Wheel
circular diagram representing visible colors and relationship with other colors
Additive color mixing
produced by superimposing RGB - combine to make WHITE LIGHT (monitors, tvs..)
Refracted light
white light separated into wavelengths
visible spectrum
full range of visible hues (ie., rainbow)
secondary colors
made by mixing 2 primary colors
comprehensive (comps)
detailed representation of a design concept -- final solution before going public or to print
Design
solves wide range of communication problems
Representational
Recognizeable actual objects also called Figurative Shape
Abstract
simple or complex, altering or distorting of the natural appearance
Non objective/non representational
Purely inventive and not derived from visual perception
rectilinear
Straight Lines or Angles
Irregular linear
curves or flowing edges
Organic, Bimorphic, Curvilinear
natural feel drawn loosely or precisely
geometric
created with Straight Edges, Precise curves, measurable angels ... Also called RIGID
Shape
General outline of something (duh)
Linear
Line to the dominant element used to describe shapes or forms
Line Quality
delicate, smooth, bold, broken, thick, thin...
Line Direction
vertical horizontal angled curved
Graphic Design
Form of visual communication used to convey a message or information to an audience...creation of visual elements