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Flash Cards for the end of the Semester Final Exam.


A political and military system based on the holding of land


The person who makes grants of land to another person


A person who receives land from a lord and pledges military services


A feudal ceremony in which a vassal receives land or a bishop takes office


The piece of land given to a vassal by a lord


A grant of money that a vassal gives to a lord


A small estate from which a lord's family gained its livelihood


A peasant who was bound to a manor and owed duties to the lord of the manor

Farming Improvements

Heavier plows, three-field system, new harness for horses


A person who lives in a walled town


In medieval France, people who live in burghs or towns rather than in rural areas

Local Fair

Fairs in which nearby manors would travel to. Cloth was the most common item

Great Fair

Fair held four times a year. People visited from far and wide


An association of people who worked at the same occupation

Merchant Guilds

Merchants were the first to form this type of guild

Craft Guilds

Skilled artisans formed this kind of guild

Guild Functions

Enforced standards by guilds


Works for a master of a craft for 3-12 years without pay


Final stage after apprenticeship


Leading bishops who choose the future pope

Marriage of Priests

first condition that reformers wanted to abolish, which allowed priests to have families


Second condition that reformers wanted to abolish, the buying and selling of church offices

Lay Investiture

Third condition that reformers wanted to abolish, in which ceremonies were performed by laymen


No church ceremonies could be performed in the offending ruler's lands

Canon Law

The law of the church

Social Services

Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick and poor


A professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines


A member of a Roman Catholic religious order who takes the same vows as a monk, but travels about preaching instead of living in a monastery


An institution of learning of the highest level


set of rules followed by a knight--courage, loyaly, devotion, courtesy toward and defense of women, protection of the poor, weak, and the needy


A youth being trained for knighthood


A young man of noble birth who as an aspirant to knighthood served a knight


A medieval martial sport in which two groups of mounted and armored combatants fought against each other with blunted lances or swords


A document, issued by a sovereign or state, outlining the conditions under which a corporation, colony, city, or other corporate body is organized, and defining its rights and privileges

Black Death

The bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated 25 million people

Magna Carta

The "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons in 1215

Battle of Hastings

The decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest


Military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims

Joan of Arc

French national heroine and martyr who raised the siege of Orléans, died at the stake

King John

Youngest son of Henry II; King of England from 1199 to 1216; succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Richard I; lost his French possessions; in 1215 John was compelled by the barons to sign the Magna Carta


A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language

Three Field System

600 acres divided into three 200 acres-wheat or rye for winter-barley, peas, beans, oats spring-fallow


City in Italy, ruled by Medici family from 1430 to 1737--where the renaissance began

Medici Family

Family that ruled Florence, Italy from 1430 to 1737


Using shading and placement in paintings to make them seem more realistic--developed during the Renaissance


The originator of the idea of a political pragmatism that says "the end justifies the means." Wrote The Prince, taught that it is better to be feared than loved.


Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet in the period known as the High Renaissance

Leonardo de Vinci

Painter from Italy who painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper", considered the "Ideal Renaissance Man"


a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God


Astronomer known for figuring out that the sun is the center of our solar system


The inventor of the astronomical telescope


Of or relating to a reference system based at the center of the sun


A controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in politics, philosophy, or science


Known for his carefully detailed observations about nature and the physical world, which laid the groundwork for the modern study of biology

Martin Luther

Priest who saw problems in the Roman Catholic Church, wrote and nailed 95 these to the church door. Started the protestant reformation and founded Lutheran church.


Payment taken in exchange for release from sins committed; "buying your way into prison"

John Calvin

Believed in predestination and leadership by the elect. Brought theocracy to Geneva

Ulrich Zwingli

Swiss reformer who belived God spared him from the plague; preached in Zurich.

Henry VIII

The king of England who had six wives and ruled England from 1509-1547; started the Anglican Church because the Church would not allow him to divorce his first wife


A government ruled by or subject to religious authority


Buying or selling of church offices or powers

95 Theses

Propositions for debate on the question of indulgences, written by Martin Luther and, according to legend, posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Ger., on Oct. 31, 1517

Scientific method

a logical prorocedure for gathering and testing ideas by forming a hypothesis and then testing

Counter Reformation

A movement in the 1500's to reform the Catholic Church and to work against Protestantism

Printing Press

moveable type helped make books (especially the bible) available to many people

Black Death

killed 25 million (1/3) people in Europe

Magna Carta

Document which limited the power of the king of England

Mary I

Tudor-English Queen,, This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants

Elizabeth I

Queen of England-followed Mary I--also known as "The Virgin Queen"

Divine Right of Kings

The idea that rulers recieve their authority from God and are answerable only to God.

Absolute Monarchy

A system of government in which the ruling monarch has unlimited power

Limited Monarchy

A government headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by laws


A legislative body consisting of two houses (lords and commons) similar to that establizhed in the eleventh century in England


One of a group of thinkers in the early 1700's who believed in reason, liberty, natural law, progress, and human happiness


The period spanning the middle years of the eighteenth century, which was characterized by the use of reason and scientific method


Freedom from extrenal or foreign rule


Moving forward


Good and reasonable


A person who lived by nature's laws would find happiness


A agathering, held by a prominent hostess, made up of distinguished wirters, poest, artists, musicians, and political leader


In medieval France, people who liven in burghs, or towns, rather that in rural areas; according to Marx, the factory owning middle class

Denis Diderot

French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist.

John Locke

Englsih Philosopher influenced the Declaration of Independence.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

French philosopher, author, and social reformer

Isaac Newton

English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.

Adam Smith

Scottish economist--wrote the Wealth of Nations

Thomas Hobbes

English philosopher and author.

National Assembly

in some countries, the name of a legislature or the lower house of a bicameral legislature

First Estate

the clergy in France

Second Estate

the nobles in France

Third Estate

made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers

Sans Culottes

a revolutionary of the poorer class: originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later adopted as a popular name by the revolutionaries.

The Great Fear

After the storming of the Bastille, many peasants rioted in cities around France

King Louis XVI

King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine

Tennis Court Oath

Oath taken by the 3rd Estate after King Louis XVI calls the Estates General, but ignores the 3rd Estate


A Jacobin, led the Committee on Public Safety, responsible for the deaths of thousands; ultimately put to death by guillotine to end the Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror

After Louis XVI is killed, the Jacobin government ruled France using terror and death

Declaration of Rights of Man

a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal

Radical Jacobins

Radical party during the French Revolution that used the guillotine to ensure that a new king would not rise

Napoleon Bonaparte

military and political leader of France at the end of the Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

Signified the beginning of the French Revolution on July 14, 1789--hungry peasants stormed the king's prison and released all of the prisoners

Liberty, Fraternity, Equality

Basic ideals of the French Revolution


Royal palace in France where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette lived


Belief that the earth was the center of the universe--proposed by Aristotle and believed by the Catholic Church

Just Price

The cost of a product plus a fair profit in the selling of something

Growth of Towns

People in the middle ages started moving away from rural farm areas and into the city to make a living.

Master Craftsman

A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters were allowed to be members of the guild.

Castle Defenses

Defenses people designed to make castles safe.

Motte and Bailey

A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.

Stone and Earth Castle

A type of defense for a castle that uses stone and earth.

Concentric Castle

A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the outer wall is lower than the inner and can be defended from it.

Holy Land/Jerusalem

Area in the Middle East that many religions believed to be sacred. Many Europeans traveled there during the Crusades.


A man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.

Values of Renaissance

-Ideal man/woman


The following of traditional and long-established theories or styles--specifically Roman and Greek themes during the Renaissance


teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone


Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs, worship and church structures.


Officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church

Mary Queen of Scots

as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed

Age of Reason

a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine

Estates General

Assemblies from representatives of three sections of French population under pre-revolutionary monarch - nobles, clergy and others

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