122 terms

European History Final Exam Review (Roth)

Flash Cards for the end of the Semester Final Exam.
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Feudalism
A political and military system based on the holding of land
Lord
The person who makes grants of land to another person
Vassal
A person who receives land from a lord and pledges military services
Investiture
A feudal ceremony in which a vassal receives land or a bishop takes office
Fief
The piece of land given to a vassal by a lord
Aid
A grant of money that a vassal gives to a lord
Manor
A small estate from which a lord's family gained its livelihood
Serf
A peasant who was bound to a manor and owed duties to the lord of the manor
Farming Improvements
Heavier plows, three-field system, new harness for horses
Burgher
A person who lives in a walled town
Bourgeoisie
In medieval France, people who live in burghs or towns rather than in rural areas
Local Fair
Fairs in which nearby manors would travel to. Cloth was the most common item
Great Fair
Fair held four times a year. People visited from far and wide
Guild
An association of people who worked at the same occupation
Merchant Guilds
Merchants were the first to form this type of guild
Craft Guilds
Skilled artisans formed this kind of guild
Guild Functions
Enforced standards by guilds
Apprentice
Works for a master of a craft for 3-12 years without pay
Journeyman
Final stage after apprenticeship
Cardinals
Leading bishops who choose the future pope
Marriage of Priests
first condition that reformers wanted to abolish, which allowed priests to have families
Simony
Second condition that reformers wanted to abolish, the buying and selling of church offices
Lay Investiture
Third condition that reformers wanted to abolish, in which ceremonies were performed by laymen
Interdict
No church ceremonies could be performed in the offending ruler's lands
Canon Law
The law of the church
Social Services
Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick and poor
Heretic
A professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines
Friar
A member of a Roman Catholic religious order who takes the same vows as a monk, but travels about preaching instead of living in a monastery
University
An institution of learning of the highest level
Chivalry
set of rules followed by a knight--courage, loyaly, devotion, courtesy toward and defense of women, protection of the poor, weak, and the needy
Page
A youth being trained for knighthood
Squire
A young man of noble birth who as an aspirant to knighthood served a knight
Tournament
A medieval martial sport in which two groups of mounted and armored combatants fought against each other with blunted lances or swords
Charter
A document, issued by a sovereign or state, outlining the conditions under which a corporation, colony, city, or other corporate body is organized, and defining its rights and privileges
Black Death
The bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated 25 million people
Magna Carta
The "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons in 1215
Battle of Hastings
The decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
Crusades
Military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
Joan of Arc
French national heroine and martyr who raised the siege of Orléans, died at the stake
King John
Youngest son of Henry II; King of England from 1199 to 1216; succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Richard I; lost his French possessions; in 1215 John was compelled by the barons to sign the Magna Carta
Nation-State
A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language
Three Field System
600 acres divided into three 200 acres-wheat or rye for winter-barley, peas, beans, oats spring-fallow
Florence
City in Italy, ruled by Medici family from 1430 to 1737--where the renaissance began
Medici Family
Family that ruled Florence, Italy from 1430 to 1737
Perspective
Using shading and placement in paintings to make them seem more realistic--developed during the Renaissance
Machiavelli
The originator of the idea of a political pragmatism that says "the end justifies the means." Wrote The Prince, taught that it is better to be feared than loved.
Michelangelo
Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet in the period known as the High Renaissance
Leonardo de Vinci
Painter from Italy who painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper", considered the "Ideal Renaissance Man"
Humanism
a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God
Copernicus
Astronomer known for figuring out that the sun is the center of our solar system
Galileo
The inventor of the astronomical telescope
Heliocentric
Of or relating to a reference system based at the center of the sun
Heresy
A controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in politics, philosophy, or science
Aristotle
Known for his carefully detailed observations about nature and the physical world, which laid the groundwork for the modern study of biology
Martin Luther
Priest who saw problems in the Roman Catholic Church, wrote and nailed 95 these to the church door. Started the protestant reformation and founded Lutheran church.
Indulgences
Payment taken in exchange for release from sins committed; "buying your way into prison"
John Calvin
Believed in predestination and leadership by the elect. Brought theocracy to Geneva
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer who belived God spared him from the plague; preached in Zurich.
Henry VIII
The king of England who had six wives and ruled England from 1509-1547; started the Anglican Church because the Church would not allow him to divorce his first wife
Theocracy
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority
Simony
Buying or selling of church offices or powers
95 Theses
Propositions for debate on the question of indulgences, written by Martin Luther and, according to legend, posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Ger., on Oct. 31, 1517
Scientific method
a logical prorocedure for gathering and testing ideas by forming a hypothesis and then testing
Counter Reformation
A movement in the 1500's to reform the Catholic Church and to work against Protestantism
Printing Press
moveable type helped make books (especially the bible) available to many people
Black Death
killed 25 million (1/3) people in Europe
Magna Carta
Document which limited the power of the king of England
Mary I
Tudor-English Queen,, This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Elizabeth I
Queen of England-followed Mary I--also known as "The Virgin Queen"
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that rulers recieve their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
Absolute Monarchy
A system of government in which the ruling monarch has unlimited power
Limited Monarchy
A government headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by laws
Parliament
A legislative body consisting of two houses (lords and commons) similar to that establizhed in the eleventh century in England
Philosophes
One of a group of thinkers in the early 1700's who believed in reason, liberty, natural law, progress, and human happiness
Enlightenment
The period spanning the middle years of the eighteenth century, which was characterized by the use of reason and scientific method
Liberty
Freedom from extrenal or foreign rule
Progress
Moving forward
Nature
Good and reasonable
Happiness
A person who lived by nature's laws would find happiness
Salon
A agathering, held by a prominent hostess, made up of distinguished wirters, poest, artists, musicians, and political leader
Bourgeoisie
In medieval France, people who liven in burghs, or towns, rather that in rural areas; according to Marx, the factory owning middle class
Denis Diderot
French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist.
John Locke
Englsih Philosopher influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher, author, and social reformer
Isaac Newton
English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist--wrote the Wealth of Nations
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher and author.
National Assembly
in some countries, the name of a legislature or the lower house of a bicameral legislature
First Estate
the clergy in France
Second Estate
the nobles in France
Third Estate
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
Sans Culottes
a revolutionary of the poorer class: originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later adopted as a popular name by the revolutionaries.
The Great Fear
After the storming of the Bastille, many peasants rioted in cities around France
King Louis XVI
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine
Tennis Court Oath
Oath taken by the 3rd Estate after King Louis XVI calls the Estates General, but ignores the 3rd Estate
Robespierre
A Jacobin, led the Committee on Public Safety, responsible for the deaths of thousands; ultimately put to death by guillotine to end the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
After Louis XVI is killed, the Jacobin government ruled France using terror and death
Declaration of Rights of Man
a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal
Radical Jacobins
Radical party during the French Revolution that used the guillotine to ensure that a new king would not rise
Napoleon Bonaparte
military and political leader of France at the end of the Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Signified the beginning of the French Revolution on July 14, 1789--hungry peasants stormed the king's prison and released all of the prisoners
Liberty, Fraternity, Equality
Basic ideals of the French Revolution
Versailles
Royal palace in France where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette lived
Geocentric
Belief that the earth was the center of the universe--proposed by Aristotle and believed by the Catholic Church
Just Price
The cost of a product plus a fair profit in the selling of something
Growth of Towns
People in the middle ages started moving away from rural farm areas and into the city to make a living.
Master Craftsman
A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters were allowed to be members of the guild.
Castle Defenses
Defenses people designed to make castles safe.
Motte and Bailey
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
Stone and Earth Castle
A type of defense for a castle that uses stone and earth.
Concentric Castle
A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the outer wall is lower than the inner and can be defended from it.
Holy Land/Jerusalem
Area in the Middle East that many religions believed to be sacred. Many Europeans traveled there during the Crusades.
Knights
A man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
Values of Renaissance
-Individual
-Learning
-Worldliness
-Ideal man/woman
Classicism
The following of traditional and long-established theories or styles--specifically Roman and Greek themes during the Renaissance
Lutheranism
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Anglican
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs, worship and church structures.
Excommunicate
Officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church
Mary Queen of Scots
as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
Age of Reason
a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine
Estates General
Assemblies from representatives of three sections of French population under pre-revolutionary monarch - nobles, clergy and others