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The Study of Life


Study of

The Science of Expectations
The Science of Theories

Biology is....

Sub-Atomic Particles, Atom (Element), Compounds (Molecules), Macro-Compounds (Macro-Molecules), Organelles, Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ-System, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem (Biome), Ecosphere (Biosphere)

Hierarchy of Life

Sub-Atomic Particles

A part that makes up a whole of an atom: the proton, the neutron, and the electron.


The sub-atomic particle with a single positive electrical charge.


As its name implies, it's electrically neutral (has no charge)


The sub-atomic particle with a single negative charge and orbits the neutron.


The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.


A substance that cannot be broken down to tore substances by ordinary means.


A combination of 2 or more atoms (or elements) in a fixed ration and have their own unique characteristics. .


Specific types of compounds found in the body. Not all compounds are these. Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond.


"Little Cell"
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function whithin a cell.


The fundamental structural unit of life.
A basic unit of living matter separated from its enviroment by a plasma membrane.


An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.


Made up of several different tissues, each made up of a group of similar cells that perform a specific function.


Consists of several organs that cooperates in a specific function.


An individual living thing.


Includes all individuals of a particular species living in an area.


The array of organisms in an ecosystem.


Consists of all the organisms living in a particular area.


A major type of ecological association that occupied a broad geographic region of land or water and is characterized by organisms adapted to that particular environment


Consists of the earth, all of the organisms living on it, and all the environmental factors which act on the organism.

Emergent Properties

New properties that aries with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, wing to the arrangement and interaction of parts as commplexitty increases.

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem

Sun --> HEAT --> Photoautotrophs (PRODUCERS) --> HEAT --> Chemoheterotrophs (CONSUMERS) --> HEAT --> Detriovores & Saprophytes (DECOMPOSERS)
Sun (Kinetic Energy) + CO₂ + H₂O = Photosynthesis (Potential Energy) by PRODUCERS; by products of H₂O and O₂; Chemoheterotrophs (CONSUMERS) eat the producers; DECOMPOSERS: Detriovores eat dying material in soil, detritous, and saprophytes feed on dying matter. Heat is given off to the universe during each chemical reaction.


The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter.

1st Law of Thermodynamics

The principle of conservation of energy
Energy can be transferrers and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy nor matter can be created.


Energy shuttle

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The principle stating that every energy conversion reduces the order of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat.

1. Diversity
2. DNA
3. Order
4. Regulate
5. Grow/Develop
6. Energy
7. Respond
8. Reproduce
9. Evolve

Nine Commonalities of Life (Both at the Cellular Level and in Multicellular Organisms)


Comes from Latin meaning "kind" or "appearance"
A group whose members posses similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Two major categories of cells


Does not have membrane bound organelles
No nucleus
Macrrons 0.5 - 10
All have cell wall
Chemical Reaction on Cell Membrane


Membrane Bound Organelles
Macrons 10 - 100


Deals with classification and meaning of all categories.

1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya

Three Domains of Life


Traditional Hierarchy of Life

Binomial Nomenclature

A system of nomenclature in which each species is given a unique name that consist of a genetic and a specific name.

1. Protista
2. Fungi
3. Plantae
4. Animalea

The Four Kingdoms of Eukarya


Father of the evolutionary theory. He was a naturalist and a botanist. He came up with Descent with Modification and Natura Selection

Decent with Modification

Animals will adapt somehow someway or mutations will occur that will allow them to survive. Basically says you will adapt somehow someway.

Natural Selection

Nature selects who lives or who dies based on your characteristic or your ability. The meanss by which evolution will occur.


The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference.

Inductive and Deductive

Two Types of Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Used in observation or discovery science
Logic flows from specific to general

Deductive Rreasoning

Used in hypothesis based research
Logic flows from general to specific

Scientific Method

A method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses.
Uses both inductive and deductive reasoning.

Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, Data Analysis, and Reporting Conclusion

Five Steps in the Scientific Method


Educated Guess

Variable, Null, and Alternate

Types of Hypothesis

Control and Experimental

Types of Experimentation


Atom's central core

Atomic Number

All atoms of a particular element have the same unique number of protons.
The number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element, and therefore also the number of electrons normally surrounding the nucleus.

Atomic Weight

Sum of an atoms protons and neutrons or the average of all isotopes.


They have the same number of protons and behave identically in chemical reactions, but they have different numbers of neutrons.


The specialization in the structure and function of cells that occurs during the development of an organism; results from selective activation and deactivation of the cells' genes.

Embryonic Stem Cell

Cell in the early embryo that differentiates during development to give rise to all the different kinds of specialized cells in the body.

Hox Gene

Any of a class of genes that determine the basic structure and orientation of an organism.


Capacity to perform work (moving matter over or through space)

Kinetic and Potential

What are the two types of Energy?

Kinetic Energy

The energy of motion; the energy of a mass of matter that is moving.

Potential Energy

The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement; stored energy.

Energy Transformation

Converting kinetic energy into potential energy or potential energy into kinetic energy.


Organisms that eat detritus which is dead and dying animal material.
They crawl through their food.


Organisms that secrete digestive enzymes outside of their bodies and they break down decaying or rotting organ matter and they absorb the nutrients back through their call wall and cell membrane.
They crawl on their food.


Anything we consider outside of the norm.
You can only test one at a time.

Null Hypothesis

Variable will have no effect on the outcome of the experiment.

Alternate Hypothesis

Variable will have an effect on the outcome of the experiment.

Control Group

Don't introduce the variable into.
Group of organisms that go through all the steps of the experiment excluding the variable.

Experimental Group

Introduce the variable.
Group of organisms that go through all the steps of the experiment including the variable.


It can be proven within the realms of the universe (physical or chemical) or mathematically
Definitive Statement


A statement that says it is probably a certain way, but it cannot be proven
Not a definitive statement

Cell Membrane

Outer surrounding of a cell that separates it from the environment and aids in internal regulation by controlling the entrance and exit of materials.
Separates internal from external
Regulates what goes in and out of a cell
Where most reactions take place
All cells have them

Cell Wall

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plan cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
Not all cells have them


A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers.
Molecule are linked into cable-like fibrils.
Gives strength and absorbs.


Expressing yourself in different ways


"Steady State" or Physical Well Being

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