50 terms

Sociology Exam 2

Jane is a 49 year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?
ascribed status
Signs that identify a position in society someone occupies are referred to as
status symbols
A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their
master status
The difference between status and role is that
we occupy a status and play a role
Which of the following is not one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive?
maintaining traditional gender relations
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed ________
organic solidarity
An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called ________
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the
Thomas Theorem
Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to as "the intimate community" was ________. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.
Gemeinschaft; Gesellschaft.
In Professor Jones' social problems course the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "Dr. J's class," and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. In view of this which concept best describes Dr. Jones' class?
The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution?
The ________ is to the post industrial society as the ________ is to the emerging biotech society.
microchip; decoding of the human genome
What is the key feature of post-industrial societies as it relates to the work force?
transmission and use of information services dominated the work force
There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a
primary group
Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered
Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt?
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
Solomon Asch
What did Stanley Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiment demonstrate?
A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others when ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
How would an organization minimize group think from occurring?
person in position of authority giving free reign to diverse opinions
An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is
What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?
the past is the best guide for what should be done in the present
In which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line"?
industrial and post-industrial
The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced capitalism was
Max Weber
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a[n]
The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called
The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organization, and all other organizations that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of
voluntary associations
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called
Iron law of Oligarchy
It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the _____ perspective.
People work more effectively in small groups and work teams than in a centralized command structure. What is the sociological explanation for this?
Small groups form primary relationships thereby reducing alienation
Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
it is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
degradation ceremonies
The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.
Harold Garfinkel
Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
they are from families that have a history of being involved in crime
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
labeling theory
The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ________ theory.
strain theory
John desires the best things in life...a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression and used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
conflict perspective
How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?
marginal working class
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
wealth, power, prestige
Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
When used by sociologists, the term "wealth," refers to ________.
both property owned and income made by the person minus debts
Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a[n] ________.
petty bourgeoisie
What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries?
education, power, property, prestige
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
intergenerational mobility
Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called ________ mobility.
What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
race and ethnicity
The most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today are ____.
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
The South